Wheat Research Institute

Faisalābād, Pakistan

Wheat Research Institute

Faisalābād, Pakistan
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Khokhar M.I.,Wheat Research Institute | da Silva J.A.T.,Kagawa University
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (YI) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (YSI), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (YI) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance.

Akbar N.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | E. Ehsanullah,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Jabran K.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali M.A.,Wheat Research Institute | Ali M.A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Severe water shortage in Pakistan has led the researchers to develop different sowing methods of rice such as direct drilling of seed in the soil as an alternative or substitute to the flooded transplanted rice. But direct drilling of rice severs the weed proliferation which reduces crop yields. Weed control methods including hand hoeing, mechanical and chemical control were tested for weed management in direct seeded rice. All the weed control methods were effective in decreasing the total weed density and dry weight over control and improving the rice yield and quality. Maximum weed suppression and increase in rice yield was resulted by hand pulling than by the mechanical hoeing. Both hand pulling and mechanical hoeing were better than herbicides in suppression of weed and increasing yield. All the herbicides resulted in more than 80 % reduction in weed density and 74-87 % decrease in weed dry weight. Maximum increase of 30 % in grain yield over control was observed in hand pulling and that of 25 % in mechanical hoeing. Both methods also resulted in improved quality and gave maximum percentage of normal kernels that is 60.47 in mechanical hoeing and 60.03 hand pulling. Increase in rice yield due to application of herbicides was 7-19 %. The order of herbicides in suppressing the weeds as well as increasing rice yield was pretilachlor>butachlor>pendimethalin.

Li S.,Northwest University, China | Li S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li S.,Wheat Research Institute | Wang C.,Northwest University, China | And 2 more authors.
Genetica | Year: 2012

As a quantitatively inherited trait related to high yield potential, grain weight (GW) development in wheat is constrained by abiotic stresses such as limited water supply and high temperature. Data from a doubled haploid population, derived from a cross of (Hanxuan 10 × Lumai 14), grown in four environments were used to explore the genetic basis of GW developmental behavior in unconditional and conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using a mixed linear model. Thirty additive QTLs and 41 pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected, and were more frequently observed on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2D, 4A, 4B and 7B. No single QTL was continually active during all stages or periods of grain growth. The QTLs with additive effects (A-QTLs) expressed in the period S1{pipe}S0 (the period from the flowering to the seventh day after) formed a foundation for GW development. GW development at these stages can be used as an index for screening superior genotypes under diverse abiotic stresses in a wheat breeding program. One QTL, i. e. Qgw. cgb-6A. 2, showed high adaptability for water-limited and heat-stress environments. Many A-QTLs interacted with more than one other QTL in the two genetic models, such as Qgw. cgb-4B. 2 interacted with five QTLs, showing that the genetic architecture underlying GW development involves a collective expression of genes with additive and epistatic effects. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Khan M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad J.,Wheat Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

Haploids are helpful in studies for intergenomic relationship, identifying molecular markers, reducing time period of varietal development and increasing efficiency of breeding program. In case of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wheat x maize cross system is the most successful system due to its higher efficiency, more haploid embryo production and low genetic specificity. The haploid embryo production is affected by many factors i.e. light, temperature, relative humidity and tiller culture media. A study was carried out comprising 25 genotypes of bread wheat for haploid embryo production using 100 mgL-1 2,4-D, 40gL-1 Sucrose and 8mlL-1 Sulphurous acid. Haploid embryo production was observed at various levels of environmental factors i.e. maize pollen collection temperature, time of pollination after tiller emasculation, light intensity and relative humidity during haploid seed formation. Maximum haploid embryo formation recorded was 9.52%. Best temperature observed for pollination was 21-26°C, optimum time duration for pollination was 24 hours after emasculation, light intensity was 10,000 Lux and relative humidity was 60-65% at 20-22°C.

Rehman A.U.,Wheat Research Institute | Sajjad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan S.H.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad N.,Wheat Research Institute
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2013

Wheat leaf, stripe and stem rusts have devastating role in reducing crop yield resulting in socio-economic instability many times across the world. The semi-dwarf wheat varieties with race specific resistance could not survive longer due to the evolution of new rust races. However, varieties like Lerma Rojo-64, Yaqui-50 and Lyalpur-73 developed in early part of green revolution retained resistance for longer time due to presence of adult plant resistance (APR) genes. Evolution of new rust races like virulence(s Yr9 and Yr27 followed by the emergence of Ug99 and its mutants lead the breeders to revise their breeding strategy. Breeders are now depending on accumulation of minor genes or their use in combination with major genes for durability of rust resistance in wheat varieties. The minor genes/APR genes, Sr2/Yr30, Lr34/Yr18, Lr46/Yr19 are being exploited in wheat breeding at CIMMYT and other places. The germplam with this type of resistance have shown survival consistency over space and time. At Ayub Agriculture Institute, Faisalabad the home of green revolution in Pakistan, this strategy has been adopted since 1995. The partial resistance varieties were crossed in a top cross/back cross scheme and the segregating populations were advanced by selected bulk method, which resulted in the development of material having better yield and rust resistance than the pre-exiting varieties (e.g., Inqlab-91, MH-97). Three varieties, Shafaq-06 and Lasani-08 and AARI-11 from these crosses have been approved for general cultivation. Similarly, the material developed and distributed by CIMMYT, Mexico having this type of resistance is being globally adopted. The SSR markers for above mentioned minor genes are available and can be used as an aid in the early selection of superior genotypes. © 2013 Friends Science Publishers.

Jabran K.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Farooq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Hussain M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Hafeez-Ur-Rehman,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali M.,Wheat Research Institute
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2010

Environmental contamination, herbicide resistance development among weeds and health concerns due to over and misuse of synthetic herbicides has led the researchers to focus on alternative weed management strategies. Allelochemicals extracted from various plant species can act as natural weed inhibitors. In this study, allelopathic extracts from four plant species sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], mulberry (Morus alba L.), barnyard grass [Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.], winter cherry [Withania somnifera (L.)] were tested for their potential to inhibit the most problematic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) weeds wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and canary grass (Phalaris minor Ritz.). Data regarding time to start germination, time to 50% germination, mean germination time, final germination percentage, germination energy, root and shoot length, number of roots, number of leaves, and seedling fresh and dry weight was recorded for both the weeds, which showed that mulberry was the most inhibitory plant species while sorghum showed least allelopathic suppression against wild oat. Mulberry extracts resulted in a complete inhibition of the wild oat germination. The allelopathic potential for different plants against wild oat was in the order: mulberry > winter cherry > barnyard grass > sorghum. Mulberry, barnyard grass and winter cherry extracts resulted in a complete inhibition of canary grass. Sorghum however exhibited least suppressive or in some cases stimulatory effects on canary grass. Plants revealing strong allelopathic potential can be utilized to derive natural herbicides for weed control.

Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Arshad I.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The pathogenic potential of Meloidogyne incognita on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was determined at initial population densities of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 second stage juveniles per kg of soil in pots in the glasshouse inoculated after 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th week of emergence. Significant reductions in plant height and fresh shoot weight and increases in root weight, number of galls and egg masses were observed at all inoculum densities. With an increase in inoculum level, there was a progressive increase in height and shoot weight reductions, root weight, number of galls and egg masses. Plants inoculated after 2nd week of emergence were heavily damaged. However, with the increase in plant age at the time of inoculation, the damaging effects lowered significantly. Reductions in height and shoot weight and increase in root weight, number of galls and egg masses were found to be directly proportional to inoculum densities. On the other hand, with an increase in the initial inoculum density and plant age there was a corresponding decrease in the reproduction factor being inversely proportional to inoculum densities and plant ages.

Ali F.,The University of Faisalabad | Iqbal N.,The University of Faisalabad | Hussain M.,Wheat Research Institute | Anwar J.,Wheat Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Twenty wheat lines were tested for drought tolerance in terms of relative chemical composition and physical properties of grains. These wheat lines were selected on the basis of maintaining their photosynthetic potential under drought stress. There were two treatments of drought stress, normal irrigation and no irrigation throughout crop growth period. Exposure of wheat plants to continuous drought stress (rain fed) led to an increase in total proteins and gluten contents in grain. Grain zeleny concentration of water stressed plants was significantly lower than those of normally irrigated plants. Average grain diameter differed non-significantly but grain hardness decreased significantly in plants experiencing long term drought compared with drought untreated ones. A wheat lines had a differential response to water limited environment in terms of grain quality attributes and their performance was not dependent on their photosynthetic potential.

Anwar J.,Wheat Research Institute | Subhani G.M.,Wheat Research Institute | Hussain M.,Wheat Research Institute | AHMAD J.,Wheat Research Institute | Munir M.,Wheat Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Performance of nineteen exotic genotypes along with local check variety was studied during 2009-10 at Wheat Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted under two field conditions i.e., stress and irrigated conditions. In case of water stress experiment, only soaking irrigation was applied for seed bed preparation and no further irrigation was applied up to maturity. While, four irrigations were applied at critical growth stages to the second experiment (irrigated). At maturity, grain yield was recorded in both experiments (stress Ys and irrigated Yp). From grain yield data, some drought tolerance/resistance indices such as tolerance index (TOL), mean productivity (MP), harmonic mean (HM), stress susceptibility index (SSI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (STI), yield index (YI), yield stability index (YSI) and modified stress tolerance index (k1STI & k2STI) were calculated. Genotypic correlation, genetic components and heritability were also calculated for grain yield and all indices. Significant differences among genotypes were observed for Yp, Ys and all other drought tolerance indices. Moderate to high heritability and genetic advance were observed for Yp, Ys and all drought tolerance indices. Grain yield under irrigated environment (Yp) was positively and significantly correlated with MP, HM, GMP, STI and k1STI. Similarly, positive and significant association has also been observed between grain yield under stress condition (Ys) and MP, HM, GMP, STI, YI and k2STI so they were the better predictor of potential yield Yp and Ys than TOL, SSI and YSI. According to Fernandez model; genotypes No. 2, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 13 have uniform superiority under both conditions (stress and irrigated). Genotypes No. 1, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 were recommended for irrigated conditions. Genotypes No. 3 and 5 were identified suitable for stress conditions. While genotypes No. 8, 10, 12, 14 and 20 performed poorly under either environments (stress and irrigated).

Riaz-Ud-Din,Wheat Research Institute | Subhani G.M.,Wheat Research Institute | Ahmad N.,Wheat Research Institute | Hussain M.,Wheat Research Institute | Rehman A.U.,Wheat Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Ten wheat genotypes viz., Inqilab-91, AS-2002, GA-2002, Manthar, Ufaq-2002, 00125, 00055, 01180, 00183 and 99022 were planted on November 10, 2003 (normal planting) and January 10, 2004 (late planting) at Wheat Research Institute, Faisalabad to study the effect of temperature on development and formation of grain. Significant genotypic differences were observed for all traits studied indicating considerable amount of variation among genotypes for each character under normal and late planting conditions. The maximum reduction of 53.75% was noted for grain yield while tillers m-2 showed less reduction (15.38%) under late planting conditions. Heat stress intensity was high (0.538), which ultimately lowered the grain yield under late planting conditions. Variety AS-2002 showed a low (0.86) heat susceptibility index for grain yield. However, Inqilab-91, 00125, 00180, and 00183 were better yielder under normal planting conditions. High genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV), phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV), heritability in broad sense (h2), genetic advance as percentage of mean (GA%) were observed for grain filling duration, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plot under normal and late planting conditions. Genotypic correlation coefficients were generally in the same direction as phenotypic correlation coefficients but higher in magnitude under both planting conditions. 1000-grain weight was significantly and positively associated with harvest index at genotypic level. Under late planting conditions, grain yield per plot showed significant and positive genotypic correlation coefficients with biomass per plot and harvest index. Characters showing strong association with grain yield indicating selection for these traits are expected to result in yield improvement under normal and late planting conditions.

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