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Saidou M.,Northwest University, China | Saidou M.,University of Ngaoundere | Wang C.,Northwest University, China | Alam M.A.,Northwest University, China | And 3 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Field Crops | Year: 2016

Common wheat line N0324, derived from the cross wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides Thell) accession 5055 and Shaan 253, provides effective protection to powdery mildew. Analysis of 205 individuals in the segregating F2 population generated by crossing N0324 with the susceptible cultivar Shaanyou 225 revealed that resistance in N0324 line was controlled by a single recessive gene designated temporarily as Pm5055. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to characterize the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm5055. Four SSR markers such as Xwmc441, Xbarc7, Xbarc13 and Xbarc55 were linked to the gene with genetic distances of 10.6, 23, 23 and 23.9 cM, respectively. Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines were used to assign the chromosomal locations of the linked markers. The results suggested that this gene might be located on chromosome 2B. Pm5055 can be used to diversify powdery mildew resistance sources in future wheat breeding programs. © 2016, Society of Field Crops Science. All rights reserved.

Islam M. S.,Hiroshima University | Islam M. S.,Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University | Akhter M.M.,Wheat Research Center | Sabagh A.E.,Hiroshima University | And 5 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Soil salinization and alkalization are widespread environmental problems. To compare the growth and physiological responses under saline stress (SS) and alkaline stress (AS), Foxtail millet (Setaria italic L) and Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L) were tested under saline and alkaline conditions by mixing the two neutral salts (NaCl and Na 2SO 4) and the two alkaline salts (NaHCO 3 and Na 2CO 3). Compared to SS, AS inhibited in greater extent plant dry weight, relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and relative water content (RWC) and the rates of reduction were more pronounced in Foxtail millet, indicating that tolerance to AS was higher in Proso millet than in Foxtail millet. Sodium concentration in leaves was enhanced at double by AS than in SS. Foxtail millet accumulated more Na in the leaves and stem but the roots of Proso millet contained a higher concentration of Na, indicating that Proso millet inhibited the transportation of Na from roots to shoots which resulted in less of a decrease in plant growth. The N content markedly decreased under AS in leaves, stems and roots of both species. The proline content in leaves increased under both treatments and it was higher in SS than in AS. These results suggest that the potential extent of stress-induced injuries was higher in Foxtail millet than in Proso millet and thus Proso millet may have a higher capacity to tolerate saline and alkaline conditions, especially the more deleterious alkaline condition.

Ashraful Alam M.,Northwest University, China | Ashraful Alam M.,Wheat Research Center | Xue F.,Northwest University, China | Ali M.,University of Sindh | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most economically important wheat diseases in many regions through out the world. N0308, a common wheat line contains powdery mildew resistance gene introgressed from wild emmer accession G25. Genetic analysis of the F2 populations and F3 families derived from the cross between N0308 and a susceptible common wheat cultivar Shaanyou 225 indicated a single dominant gene, temporarily designated PmG25, conferred resistance to powdery mildew race 'Guanzhong 4'. Bulked segregant analysis and molecular markers were used to characterize the powdery mildew resistance gene PmG25. Eleven SSR markers (Xgpw1082, Xgpw3191, Xfcp1, Xfcp393, Xfcp394, Xgpw7425, Xwmc75, Xgwm408, Xwmc810, Xbarc232 and Xbarc142) and two EST-STS markers (BF482522 and BF202652) were linked with PmG25 on the long arm of chromosome 5B. The resistance gene was flanked by Xfc1/Xfcp393 and Xgpw3191, with genetic distances of 1.3 and 3.3 cM, respectively, and located on the chromosome bin 5BL-14- 0.75-0.76 in the test with a set of deletion lines. The powdery mildew resistance genes Pm36 and Ml3D232 have also been mapped to the region. The chromosome location and genetic mapping results suggested that the powdery mildew resistance gene derived from wild emmer G25 may be allelic or closely linked to Pm36.

Pretorius Z.A.,University of the Free State | Prins R.,University of the Free State | Prins R.,CenGen Pty Ltd | Malaker P.K.,Wheat Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2015

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important crop in South Asia and epidemics of stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can impact negatively on food security. In a pro-active assessment of the risk posed by this disease, germplasm collections received from Bangladesh and Nepal in 2011 were screened for their response to Sr31-virulent stem rust races belonging to the Ug99 group. According to a molecular marker assay, 44% of Bangladesh lines and 48% of Nepal lines contained Sr31. In seedling tests, most entries were susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race PTKST, confirming the ineffectiveness of Sr31. No lines contained Sr24 or Sr36, two major genes that have been overcome by races within the Ug99 group. Despite seedling susceptibility, many lines exhibited high levels of adult plant resistance in the field. The presence of the Sr2 marker allele of csSr2 in some of these lines indicated that this gene is likely to play a role in the adult plant resistance observed. This study showed that sufficient protection to Ug99 exists in Bangladesh and Nepal wheat germplasm, and that the appropriate release of resistant cultivars will insure against a possible future incursion of this dangerous pathogen. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Jahan M.A.H.S.,Regional Wheat Research Center | Hossain A.,Wheat Research Center | Sarkar M.A.R.,Bangladesh Agricultural University | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,P.O. Box 7 | Ferdousi M.N.S.,Bangladesh University
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Bangladesh needs to produce more food on less land to assure future food security for an increasing population. The two techniques that need to be adopted more frequently are an increase in cropping intensity by producing two or more crops on the same piece of land, and an increase in the productivity of individual crops, particularly their ability to utilize basic or limiting resources such as water and nutrients. In this context, the present study was carried out to assess the most suitable crop rotation based on the dose of organic and inorganic fertilizers as a source of plant nutrients. The potato–mungbean–T. (transplanted) Aman rice (P-M-R) crop rotation was applied to three agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Bangladesh (Bogra, AEZ-25; Joydebpur, AEZ-28; Jessore, AEZ-11). The results from a two-year experiment indicate that the yield of P-M-R was influenced by the nutrient management applied. Except for potato, higher yield was obtained in the second year. The yield of potato and T. Aman rice was highest when crop residues were incorporated. In all locations, N (nitrogen) and K (potassium) were depleted in both years, but P (phosphorus), S (sulphur), Zn (zinc) and B (boron) showed a positive balance. Even after completing two cropping cycles and incorporating crop residues with different levels of nutrients, there was little change in soil pH, organic matter (%), total N (%), P, K, S, Zn and B. However, in all three locations, organic matter (%), total N (%), P, K, S, Zn and B increased in plots into which crop residues had been incorporated. The soil test-based nutrient management choice that incorporated crop residues gave a higher net return (3506 US$ ha−1) than other nutrient management combinations (3351–3483 US$ ha−1). These results indicate that soil test-based nutrient management and an integrated plant nutrient system that incorporates crop residues are suitable for the potato–mungbean–T. Aman rice crop rotation in multiple environments of Bangladesh. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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