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Shimla, India

Srinivasa J.,Banaras Hindu University | Arun B.,Banaras Hindu University | Mishra V.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Chand R.,Banaras Hindu University | And 3 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2014

Breeding for higher Zn and Fe content in the wheat grain can be justified in the context of malnutrition. This breeding study set out to gauge the potential of crosses between spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) for enhancing the Zn and Fe content of wheat cultivars adapted to the northeastern plains zone (NEPZ) of India. BC1F8 populations were developed from two spelt × bread wheat combinations: H+ 35 × HUW 468 and H+ 15 × HUW 234. Their performance was evaluated at three locations in NEPZ. Around four genes were found to control inheritance of grain Zn concentration. Grain Zn and Fe concentration varied among the lines, as did other yield-related traits. Significant positive correlations were recorded between the grain content of Zn, Fe, and protein, but also negative correlations between them and the important agronomic characteristics plant height, grain yield, and thousand grain weight (TGW). Some of the derived lines showed increased mineral concentration without any decrease in grain size. The best ten selections in each population were all significantly superior to their respective bread wheat parent with respect to grain Zn and Fe content as well as some of the agronomic traits, which included resistance to spot blotch, stem rust, and leaf rust. © Crop Science Society of America.

Kumar S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Kumar S.,Wheat Research | Bains N.S.,Punjab Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Heterosis and fertility restoration in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were studied in the context of Triticum timopheevi based cytoplasmic genetic male sterility system. Five elite CMS lines were crossed with 50 restorers in line × tester fashion and sufficient seed of 199 out of all possible 250 combinations could be generated. The F1s along with parental lines (restorers, maintainers) and commercial checks were evaluated using two replications in a randomized complete block design. The trial was sown using half the commercial seed rate with all other agronomic practices being followed as per the standard package. Observations were recorded on yield; yield components, and other agronomic attributes. Genotypic differences for all these traits were shown to be significant by analysis of variance. Standard heterosis for yield (over best commercial check, PBW 502) ranged from -58.96 (PBW 343 × R 32) to 38.51% (Kauz*2/MNV//Kauz × R 19). Sixteen hybrids out yielded PBW 502, at 5% level of significance, with a significant margin ranging from 20.11 to 38.51%. Number of grains/ spike and number of spikelets/spike were the main yield components contributing to heterosis.

Quincke M.C.,Oregon State University | Quincke M.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Agropecuaria | Murray T.D.,Washington State University | Peterson C.J.,Oregon State University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Cephalosporium stripe, caused by the fungus Cephalosporium gramineum, is the only known vascular wilt disease of small grain cereals. The pathogen causes characteristic striping of leaf blades and sheaths, but can also result in seedling death, stunting, and sterile seed heads (white heads). Cephalosporium stripe is a disease of autumn (fall)-sown wheat, especially in cool and wet production regions. The disease is further favoured by early sowing, reduced tillage practices, low pH soils, and by frost heaving that damages roots. Infections occur almost entirely from spores produced on surface crop debris that are washed into the soil, although a low level of seed transmission can also occur. The pathogen colonizes root epidermis and cortical cells, subsequently moves into the vascular tissue, and eventually spreads throughout the entire plant. Production of fungal toxin(s) and extracellular polysaccharides probably play an important role in pathogenesis. Cultural practices such as delayed sowing, crop rotation, destruction of crop debris, liming of soil and fertilizer management all have potential to reduce the incidence of cephalosporium stripe. All of these cultural practices have negative economic impacts and/or increase soil erosion, and thus there is much interest in the development of resistant cultivars. There is potential for introgression of highly effective resistance from wild species into cultivated wheat. Genes for quantitatively inherited resistance can also be accumulated within cultivated wheat to attain moderate resistance. The continued use of cultivars with moderate resistance will probably be sufficient for long-term control of the disease. © 2014 British Society for Plant Pathology.

Garg D.,Wheat Research | Sareen S.,Wheat Research | Dalal S.,Kurukshetra University | Tiwari R.,Wheat Research | Singh R.,Wheat Research
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2013

Terminal heat referred to as increase in temperature during grain filling, is one of the important stress factors for wheat production and is responsible for decline in wheat production in many environments worldwide. In order to meet the challenges of high temperature ahead of global warming, concerted efforts are needed to evaluate wheat genotypes for heat tolerance and develop genotypes suitable for such stressed environments. Twenty-seven advanced wheat genotypes developed for stress and normal environments by different research centres were evaluated during 2009-10 and 2010-11 under timely sown (normal) and late sown (heat stress) environments. Analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes differed significantly in grain filling duration (GFD), grain growth rate (GGR) and thousand-grain weight (TGW). Out of 27 genotypes, 16 were found to be tolerant for thousand-grain weight under late planting (heat stress) during 2009-10 but only 12 were tolerant during 2010-11. Many of the genotypes registered more reduction in thousand-grain weight during 2010-11 as compared to 2009-10; the temperatures during 2009-10 were higher. The differences in grain filling duration under two conditions during both seasons as well as difference in temperatures during first half of grain filling explain the reduction pattern in the genotypes. GFD had significant negative correlation with temperatures during post heading period and the difference in GFD under two environments had positive correlation with these temperatures. The reduction in GFD had regression of 33.3% on reduction in GGR and reduction in GGR had regression of 41.6% on reduction in TGW genotypes AKW 1071, DBW 17, HS 277, K 7903, K 9107, NW 1014 and RAJ 3765 had less sensitivity to stress environments during both years.

Narwal S.,Wheat Research | Thakur V.,Wheat Research | Sheoran S.,Wheat Research | Dahiya S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

In this study, Indian wheat varieties grown under different agro-climatic zones were evaluated for their antioxidant potential. Different grain fractions (bran, flour, shorts) and the whole meal were tested using two free radicals (ABTS and DPPH) for their radical scavenging activities. More variation was observed in the antioxidant activities from different zones using DPPH assay. Irrespective of the method used, the whole meal and the bran of central zone varieties showed the highest and the north western plains zone varieties showed the lowest antioxidant activities. Within each growing zone, both the effect of genotype and environment was observed on the antioxidant activity. Both free and bound phenolic compounds were extracted from the bran of varieties representing different zones. Total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 2,900 to 5,650 μg Gallic acid equivalents/g of bran. Bound phenolic content was found to be more strongly correlated to the TPC than the free phenolic content. Highly significant genotypic differences were observed in the total phenolic content. This study therefore indicates that Indian wheat varieties have good antioxidant activity and high content of phenolic compounds and can be used further in breeding programmes to increase the content of phytochemicals responsible for antioxidant activity. © 2012 Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology.

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