Wheat Research

Shimla, India

Wheat Research

Shimla, India
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Chaudhary D.P.,Maize Research | Kumar D.,Wheat Research | Verma R.P.S.,Wheat Research | Langyan S.,Maize Research | Sangwan S.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Maize: Nutrition Dynamics and Novel Uses | Year: 2014

Malting is the process of converting cereal into malt. Barley is the most preferred malted grain because of its high enzyme content needed for the conversion of grain starch to malt. Wheat, rye, oats and rice are the other cereal grains used for this purpose. Maize kernels are rich in starch (≈70 %). The abundance of starch in maize stimulates researchers to evolve improved technological interventions for the better conversion of maize to malt. Inadequate diastatic power and the immature breakage of plumule before the complete endosperm modification of maize kernel are the major hurdles in selecting maize for malting purpose. Maize is used as an adjunct in the production of beer. Breeding maize for malting and the evolution of improved technology for proper endosperm modification are needed for the efficient conversion of maize to malt. © 2014 Springer India. All rights reserved.

Sarkar B.,Wheat Research | Sarkar B.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Sarkar A.,Wheat Research | Sharma R.C.,Wheat Research | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important coarse cereal cultivated in many parts of the world since ancient times and mostly used as cattle &poultry feed. However, in India due to climate change and frequent drought especially in drier areas barley offers a better alternative to extreme climate such as drought and winter. In the present study 220 cultivated barley accessions of indigenous and exotic origin were evaluated for different agro-morphological traits. The material was evaluated during the 2011-12 growing season at DWR, Karnal where observations were recorded on 13 agro-morphological traits. The results showed high variability among the accessions for grain per spike, green fodder yield, grain yield, grain yield of regenerated crop, biological yield and harvest index (HI). Based on K-mean clustering pattern, the genotypes were grouped into five clusters having significant inter-cluster distances. Shannon-Weaver's diversity index (H) and Simpson's index (1/D) was used to assess the phenotypic diversity of traits for each cluster genotypes and overall. Shannon's diversity index revealed large diversity for most traits. The average H for the whole population was 0.91 with the lowest 0.74 for HI, the highest (1.01) for days to heading. The simple correlation coefficients among traits were estimated, which showed significant positive relations between grain yield with plant height (r = 0.25**), green fodder yield (r = 0.15*), grain yield of regenerated crop (r = 0.13*) and HI (0.19**), while negative correlation with days to heading (r = -0.35**). Sources for individual traits in different genotypes of barley clusters were identified which can be used as donors in hybridization programme for dual purpose barley improvement programme.

Quincke M.C.,Oregon State University | Quincke M.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Agropecuaria | Murray T.D.,Washington State University | Peterson C.J.,Oregon State University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Cephalosporium stripe, caused by the fungus Cephalosporium gramineum, is the only known vascular wilt disease of small grain cereals. The pathogen causes characteristic striping of leaf blades and sheaths, but can also result in seedling death, stunting, and sterile seed heads (white heads). Cephalosporium stripe is a disease of autumn (fall)-sown wheat, especially in cool and wet production regions. The disease is further favoured by early sowing, reduced tillage practices, low pH soils, and by frost heaving that damages roots. Infections occur almost entirely from spores produced on surface crop debris that are washed into the soil, although a low level of seed transmission can also occur. The pathogen colonizes root epidermis and cortical cells, subsequently moves into the vascular tissue, and eventually spreads throughout the entire plant. Production of fungal toxin(s) and extracellular polysaccharides probably play an important role in pathogenesis. Cultural practices such as delayed sowing, crop rotation, destruction of crop debris, liming of soil and fertilizer management all have potential to reduce the incidence of cephalosporium stripe. All of these cultural practices have negative economic impacts and/or increase soil erosion, and thus there is much interest in the development of resistant cultivars. There is potential for introgression of highly effective resistance from wild species into cultivated wheat. Genes for quantitatively inherited resistance can also be accumulated within cultivated wheat to attain moderate resistance. The continued use of cultivars with moderate resistance will probably be sufficient for long-term control of the disease. © 2014 British Society for Plant Pathology.

Kumar S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Kumar S.,Wheat Research | Bains N.S.,Punjab Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Heterosis and fertility restoration in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were studied in the context of Triticum timopheevi based cytoplasmic genetic male sterility system. Five elite CMS lines were crossed with 50 restorers in line × tester fashion and sufficient seed of 199 out of all possible 250 combinations could be generated. The F1s along with parental lines (restorers, maintainers) and commercial checks were evaluated using two replications in a randomized complete block design. The trial was sown using half the commercial seed rate with all other agronomic practices being followed as per the standard package. Observations were recorded on yield; yield components, and other agronomic attributes. Genotypic differences for all these traits were shown to be significant by analysis of variance. Standard heterosis for yield (over best commercial check, PBW 502) ranged from -58.96 (PBW 343 × R 32) to 38.51% (Kauz*2/MNV//Kauz × R 19). Sixteen hybrids out yielded PBW 502, at 5% level of significance, with a significant margin ranging from 20.11 to 38.51%. Number of grains/ spike and number of spikelets/spike were the main yield components contributing to heterosis.

Garg D.,Wheat Research | Sareen S.,Wheat Research | Dalal S.,Kurukshetra University | Tiwari R.,Wheat Research | Singh R.,Wheat Research
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2013

Terminal heat referred to as increase in temperature during grain filling, is one of the important stress factors for wheat production and is responsible for decline in wheat production in many environments worldwide. In order to meet the challenges of high temperature ahead of global warming, concerted efforts are needed to evaluate wheat genotypes for heat tolerance and develop genotypes suitable for such stressed environments. Twenty-seven advanced wheat genotypes developed for stress and normal environments by different research centres were evaluated during 2009-10 and 2010-11 under timely sown (normal) and late sown (heat stress) environments. Analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes differed significantly in grain filling duration (GFD), grain growth rate (GGR) and thousand-grain weight (TGW). Out of 27 genotypes, 16 were found to be tolerant for thousand-grain weight under late planting (heat stress) during 2009-10 but only 12 were tolerant during 2010-11. Many of the genotypes registered more reduction in thousand-grain weight during 2010-11 as compared to 2009-10; the temperatures during 2009-10 were higher. The differences in grain filling duration under two conditions during both seasons as well as difference in temperatures during first half of grain filling explain the reduction pattern in the genotypes. GFD had significant negative correlation with temperatures during post heading period and the difference in GFD under two environments had positive correlation with these temperatures. The reduction in GFD had regression of 33.3% on reduction in GGR and reduction in GGR had regression of 41.6% on reduction in TGW genotypes AKW 1071, DBW 17, HS 277, K 7903, K 9107, NW 1014 and RAJ 3765 had less sensitivity to stress environments during both years.

Priyamvada,Wheat Research | Saharan M.S.,Wheat Research | Tiwari R.,Wheat Research
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Several rust resistance genes have been identified and used in breeding for resistance but new variants of the pathogen (referred to as races) overcome the resistance over a period of time. Most plant breeders and pathologists now advocate durable resistance to rusts based on multiple genes as best source of resistance as breeding for this type of resistance tends to produce long-lasting solutions. Wheat breeders are now increasingly focusing on the identification and incorporation of race nonspecific resistance genes that may provide only partial resistance but when used in combination with other genes can condition highly effective resistance. Molecular markers are becoming available for many genes and their use in marker-assisted selection will certainly have a remarkable impact in practical breeding. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Ram S.,Wheat Research | Sharma S.,Wheat Research | Sharma I.,Wheat Research
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2015

Two hundred and forty diverse set of wheat cultivars released in India during the last several decades were evaluated for HMW and LMW glutenin alleles, for assessing their diversity and effect on sedimentation volume and mixograph parameters. Both SDS-PAGE and PCR based markers were employed in identifying alleles encoded at Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci. Extensive allelic variation was observed at both the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci. There was prevalence of Glu-A1b, Glu-B1i, Glu-D1a, Glu-A3c, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g and Glu-D3b. The alleles Glu-A1b, Glu-B1i, Glu-D1d, Glu-A3b, Glu-B3g/h and Glu-D3b exhibited high SDSsedimentation volume. Glu-B1i and Glu-D1d showed highly significant positive effect (p < 0.001) on sedimentation volume and also had additive effects. However, surprisingly overall there was decline in the frequency of Glu-B1i allele during last two decades in Indian wheat breeding and not a single 1B/1R translocation cultivar possessed this allele. Glu-A1b showed significant positive effect on mixograph peak time, peak slope and peak width. Glu- B3g exhibited significantly higher mixograph peak time and width at 8 and Glu-B3h showed higher dough stability. Glu-B3j (1B/1R translocation) exhibited highest peak slope indicating the negative effect on dough strength. This information can be useful in designing breeding program for the improvement of Indian bread wheat quality. © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Srinivasa J.,Banaras Hindu University | Arun B.,Banaras Hindu University | Mishra V.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Chand R.,Banaras Hindu University | And 3 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2014

Breeding for higher Zn and Fe content in the wheat grain can be justified in the context of malnutrition. This breeding study set out to gauge the potential of crosses between spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) for enhancing the Zn and Fe content of wheat cultivars adapted to the northeastern plains zone (NEPZ) of India. BC1F8 populations were developed from two spelt × bread wheat combinations: H+ 35 × HUW 468 and H+ 15 × HUW 234. Their performance was evaluated at three locations in NEPZ. Around four genes were found to control inheritance of grain Zn concentration. Grain Zn and Fe concentration varied among the lines, as did other yield-related traits. Significant positive correlations were recorded between the grain content of Zn, Fe, and protein, but also negative correlations between them and the important agronomic characteristics plant height, grain yield, and thousand grain weight (TGW). Some of the derived lines showed increased mineral concentration without any decrease in grain size. The best ten selections in each population were all significantly superior to their respective bread wheat parent with respect to grain Zn and Fe content as well as some of the agronomic traits, which included resistance to spot blotch, stem rust, and leaf rust. © Crop Science Society of America.

Kumar V.,Wheat Research | Kumar R.,Wheat Research | Verma R.P.S.,Wheat Research | Verma A.,Wheat Research | Sharma I.,Wheat Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

The indent and production trends both indicated, that during last decade there was nearly six fold increase in indent and more than three times increase in production for barley breeder seed. The number of varieties in breeder seed production programme remained almost similar with mean value of 30. Most of the highly indented varieties, i e RD 2035, RD 2552, RD 2592, RD 2052, PL 426 and K 551 etc. in breeder seed chain are six-row type feed barley. DWRUB 52 and RD 2668 (both two-row) are malt type, while RD 2715 (six-row) is dual purpose barley, respectively. It is expected that in future newly released malt barley varieties as RD 2668 and DWRUB 52 (both timely sown) and DWRB 73 and DWRUB 64 (both late sown) will find higher places in indent due to their better suitability under areas with scanty rainfall as well as delayed sowings in other than ricewheat crop rotations, in north western plains. It has been also observed that because of severe drought in the drier parts of northern plains, there is an acute shortage of green forage in the months of November to January. The dual purpose barley can be a better option as green forage and grain crop in dry areas. Dual purpose barley varieties BHS 380 and RD 2715 can prove boon for farmers of northern hills and plains. It is expected, these will be indented in higher quantities in future. In upcoming years newly released barley varieties as HBL 391, PRB 502, BH 902, PL 751, JB 110, UPB 1008, BHS 380, RD 2715, RD 2668, DWRUB 52, DWRB 73, DWRUB 64 etc. will be more popularized and will find still higher places in indents. These newly released high yielding varieties are more tolerant to diseases particularly cereal rusts and leaf blights, which will certainly help in raising the yield levels and will be more remunerative to farmers.

Mohan D.,Wheat Research | Gupta R.K.,Wheat Research | Sharma I.,Wheat Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Flour recovery in 100 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties samples received from different locations and regions of India during 2005-11was studied for its association with baking and 15 other grain quality parameters. Differences in flour recovery were noticed between and within different regions of the country. Environmental influence in flour yield was not consequential due to absence of crop year variations and the varietal interactions with crop years and locations were also insignificant. In certain regions, interaction between locations and crop years assumed significance and sites with better flour recovery could be noticed. Wheat from peninsular region was rated best for milling yield, i e 71% whereas the most productive wheat land of the country, i e north western plains, was restricted to 68% only. Wheat grown in northern hills was very poor with flour yield as low as 65%. Suitable varieties and most conducive locations were suggested to harness flour recovery in different parts. Relationship between extraction rate and end-product quality was very strong and positive with bread volume, bread and chapati qualities; and negative with biscuit spread factor. Impact of various physico-chemical grain properties was affirmative, except for â carotene. Route to flour yield was examined through multiple regression analysis and the key contributing traits were test weight, grain appearance, grain protein content, sedimentation value, grain hardness index and certain micronutrients like iron, copper and manganese. Backward multiple regression analysis emphasised high contribution of some micronutrients like copper and iron, under various trait combinations. Contribution of these constituents varied at the regional level, strategy for genetic improvement in flour yield, therefore, would also vary accordingly. Defining constituent grain parameters in Indian varieties shall be useful to develop varieties with enhanced flour recovery.

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