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Wang N.,Anhui Agricultural University | Wang N.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Kweon M.,Pusan National University | Lee B.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2016

In order to evaluate the effects of particle size on the properties of whole-wheat flour (WWF) and its cracker baking performance, two commercial U.S. soft wheat cultivars from different wheat classes (Eltan from Soft White Winter and Gro-Mor from Soft Red Winter) were used. Based on median diameter, WWFs of four different particle size distributions for each wheat cultivar were reconstituted after further grinding bran and shorts fractions of its corresponding flour. The median diameters of each WWF were 171.6 ± 0.3, 121.8 ± 3.4, 103.8 ± 2.1 and 89.9 ± 0.6 μm for soft white winter, and 170.0 ± 0.6, 120.8 ± 3.4, 106.3 ± 0.1 and 95.6 ± 1.8 μm for soft red winter, respectively. For both wheat cultivars, with decreasing particle size, the damaged starch contents of WWFs were increased significantly, but no significant changes in water, sodium carbonate and lactic acid-solvent retention capacity values were observed. Reduction of WWF particle size significantly affected dough rheological property, which showed an increase in the maximum resistance to extension and extensibility of cracker dough after being laminated and sheeted. Cracker baking results exhibited a significant increase in the ratio of stack height to dough weight and a decrease in bran specks on surface as WWF particle size reduced. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhou Y.,Anhui Agricultural University | Zhou Y.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc.
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Changes in pH and pasting properties of instant-noodle formula drymix suspensions containing each of 12 phosphate salts were investigated. The pH values of solutions alone and then solution and flour suspensions decreased as the level of phosphate salts increased, except that of trisodium phosphate, which increased the pH value. The changes in the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) pasting parameters of instant-noodle formula suspensions were not consistent with the respective changes in pH, but the change trends of the RVA parameters for the two different wheat flours (hard red winter and soft white wheat) were similar. Five of the phosphate salts gradually increased the RVA peak viscosity (PV) as phosphate concentration increased. Seven other phosphate salts increased the PV at 0.05% and then decreased PV as the phosphate concentration increased. The change in trough viscosity owing to phosphate salt and concentration was similar to that of PV. The final viscosity (FV) gradually declined, to varying degrees, as the phosphate concentration increased for some of the phosphate salts. However, seven of the phosphate salts caused slight increases in FV as their concentrations increased. The response of starch gelatinization and pasting behavior, as measured by RVA, indicated that phosphate salts exert an influence on starch during heating in water. Because RVA parameters have been linked to instant-noodle processing and textural properties, phosphate salt identity and concentration can likely be manipulated to affect end-product quality. © 2012 AACC International, Inc.


Li J.,Jiangnan University | Li J.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Chen Z.,Jiangnan University | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Quality attributes of soft wheat products are affected by physicochemical characteristics and rheological properties of wheat flour. Whole-wheat flour has a significant impact on baking qualities (stack height, stack weight, specific volume, and breaking strength) of whole-wheat saltine crackers due to its high water absorption capacity. SRC profiles, alveograph and rheometer parameters were determined to observe the effect of whole-wheat flour on whole-wheat cracker flour blends. NMR technique was utilized to demonstrate the water migration and competition in whole-wheat dough components. Results of SRC testing revealed that the water absorption of whole-wheat flour blends increased with the addition level of whole-wheat flour. The rheological properties (G', G″, P, L, W values) were influenced significantly by the presence of whole-wheat flour. Results of NMR indicated that water migrated from gluten network into arabinoxylans matrix in whole-wheat dough system, resulting in inferior saltine cracker-baking qualities of whole-wheat flour, i.e., small breaking strength, stack height and specific volume. The stack height, specific volume, and breaking strength of end products showed significant correlations with the arabinoxylans, dough extensibility, and gluten index of whole-wheat flour. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Niu M.,Jiangnan University | Niu M.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Li X.,Jiangnan University | Wang L.,Jiangnan University | And 2 more authors.
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2014

The effects of four inorganic phosphates on the thermodynamic and pasting properties of whole wheat flour as well as color, cooking quality, textural properties, and structural characteristics of whole wheat noodles were studied. The addition of phosphates increased the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of melting of starch in whole wheat flour. Rapid visco analysis showed that all phosphates significantly increased whole wheat flour peak viscosity and final viscosity. Moreover, the whole wheat noodles prepared with disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) exhibited brighter appearance, and the use of STPP and sodium hexametaphosphate reduced the cooking loss of whole wheat noodles. Texture profile analysis of cooked noodles revealed that the addition of phosphates significantly decreased the hardness and slightly increased the springiness, cohesiveness, and resilience. The microstructure of whole wheat noodles showed a larger degree of connectivity of the protein network and coverage of starch granules in the presence of inorganic phosphates. The results suggested that inorganic phosphates exhibited substantial effects on improving the quality of whole wheat noodles. Of the four phosphates studied, STPP appeared to be the most effective one in improving the overall properties of whole wheat noodles when they were normalized to constant phosphate content. © 2014 AACC International, Inc..


Niu M.,Jiangnan University | Niu M.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Hou G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Lee B.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Chen Z.,Jiangnan University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Effects of millfeed particle size on the quality of whole-wheat flour (WWF) and raw noodles were investigated. Four ranges of particle size distribution of millfeeds from hard red spring (median diameter: 307, 260, 225, and 178μm) and hard red winter (median diameter: 319, 274, 235, and 185μm) were obtained by fine grinding. For both wheat classes, the CIE L* values of WWF decreased and a* and b* values increased with the reduction of millfeed particle sizes. WWF with finer millfeeds exhibited higher PPO activity than that with coarser millfeeds. RVA analysis showed that peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity of WWF significantly decreased as the particle size of millfeeds reduced, while breakdown and setback values revealed no obvious trend. Reducing the particles of millfeeds not only significantly increased the Farinograph stability time of WWF dough, but also improved the whole-wheat noodle (WWN) brightness (L*) at both 0 and 24 h. Texture profile analysis of cooked noodle indicated that hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and resilience values all significantly increased as the particle sizes of millfeeds were decreased. These results suggest that reduction of millfeed particle sizes before reconstituting WWF could provide beneficial effect on the quality improvement of WWN. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Niu M.,Jiangnan University | Niu M.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Wang L.,Jiangnan University | Chen Z.,Jiangnan University
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2014

Four particle size distributions of whole-wheat flour (WWF) with mean particle sizes (MZ) of 125-μm, 96-μm, 72-μm, and 43-μm were obtained by superfine grinding. Starch damage and Farinograph water absorption were significantly affected by the reduction of particle size, while dough development time, stability, tolerance index and time to breakdown of WWF were little changed. The peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity of WWF significantly decreased as particle size reduced. Although finer WWFs produced by superfine grinding caused more discoloration of whole-wheat noodle (WWN) after 24 h storage, they still showed brighter noodle appearance (higher L*) than coarser WWFs. A significant increase in the cooking yield of WWN was noticed from the 125-μm WWF group to the 43-μm group, perhaps due to increasing damaged starch, while the 72-μm group exhibited the smallest cooking loss of WWN. Additionally, the hardness, cohesiveness, and resilience values of texture profile analysis (TPA) of cooked WWN significantly increased from the 125-μm group to the 72-μm group, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the 72-μm group revealed the largest coverage of starch granules and degree of protein network connectivity among the WWF groups. The results demonstrated that the superfine grinding technique could improve the quality of WWN by significantly reducing the particle size of WWFs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu T.,University of Minnesota | Liu T.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Book S.L.,ICL Food Specialties | Marquart L.,University of Minnesota
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Chemical leavening is a neutralization reaction that can affect not only the opacity but also other physical and chemical properties of tortillas. Whole-wheat flour (WWF) tortillas is often associated with lack of sufficient opacity, generally considered as quality defect in tortillas. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of types and amounts of leavenings (acids and base), hot press and dough temperature on the quality attributes of WWF tortillas. Three leavening acids, three levels of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) (1%, 1.5%, and 2%), hot-press temperatures of 160 °C, 177 °C, and 193 °C, and two dough temperatures (25 °C and 35 °C) were used. Sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) produced more opaque tortillas than sodium acid pyrophosphate-28 (SAPP-28), followed by sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS). Increased amount of SBC and lower dough temperature improved opacity. Higher hot-press temperature produced lighter weight, thinner, and bigger diameter tortillas. Higher amount of SBC produced smaller, thicker, and brighter color tortillas. WWF tortillas made with SAS had the largest breaking force, while tortillas with SALP had the smallest breaking force as determined by TA-XTPlus Texture Analyzer. After 45 days of storage at room temperature, all tortillas showed decreased breaking force and extensibility. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Hsu Y.-H.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc.
Food Bioscience | Year: 2013

Production of bread depends on appropriate flour quality to hold fermentation gas, primarily CO2, and a means of gas production. In typical bread, yeast (Saccharomyces sp.) provides the gas during fermentation. This yeast is usually a commercially added monoculture. In sourdough bread production, the fermentation gas is provided by yeast and Lactobacilli that are derived from natural sources and differ greatly depending on which sourdough culture was used. In this study, sourdough cultures derived from wheat, the conventional source of sourdough starter, and apple, an alternative source of non-cereal yeasts were tested for their gas production over time with a Risograph fermentation gas measuring device. Sourdough starter, levain, and bread dough derived from the apple culture significantly out-performed the wheat-derived cultures in CO2 gas production at every stage of culture elaboration and fermentation. The apple-derived culture produced about twice the fermentation gas of the wheat-derived culture in the bread dough. The results suggested that different sources of wild yeast and Lactobacilli could be used to manipulate the rate, timing and total gas production in sourdough bread-making to modify production parameters and the bread's end-use quality. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Huazhong Agricultural University, South Dakota State University and Wheat Marketing Center Inc.
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2017

With the utilization of enzymes including endoxylanase, glucose oxidase (GOX) and transglutaminase (TG), and emulsifiers comprising sodium stearoyl lactate (SSL) and soy lecithin, the microstructural, textural, and sensory properties of whole-wheat noodle (WWN) were modified. The development time and stability of whole-wheat dough (WWD) were enhanced by TG due to the formation of a more compact gluten network, and by SSL resulting from the enhanced gluten strength. Microstructure graphs by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified that TG and SSL promoted the connectivity of gluten network and the coverage of starch granules in WWN. TG increased the hardness and elasticity of cooked WWN, while two emulsifiers increased the noodle cohesiveness. Additionally, TG and SSL improved the sensory properties of noodle such as bite, springiness, and mouth-feel. The results suggest that TG and SSL are effective ingredients in enhancing the gluten strength of WWD and improving the qualities of WWN.


Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Saini R.,Michigan State University | Ng P.K.W.,Michigan State University
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Physicochemical properties and protein composition of 39 selected wheat flour samples were evaluated and correlated with the textural properties of Chinese hard-bite white salted noodles. Flour samples were analyzed for their protein and wet gluten contents, sedimentation volume, starch pasting properties, and dough mixing properties by farinograph and extensigraph. Molecular weight distribution of wheat flour proteins was determined with size-exclusion (SE) HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and acid- PAGE. Textural properties of Chinese hard-bite white salted noodles were determined through texture profile analysis (TPA). Hardness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness of cooked noodles were found to be related to the dough mixing properties. Both protein content and protein composition were found to be related to TPA parameters of noodles. The amount of total flour protein was positively correlated to hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of noodles. The absolute amounts of different peak proteins obtained from SE-HPLC data showed positive correlations with the hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and springiness of noodles. The proportions of these peak proteins were, however, not significantly related to texture parameters. The proportions of low-molecular-weight glutenins/ gliadins and albumins/globulins, as observed from SDS-PAGE, were correlated positively and negatively, respectively, to the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of cooked noodles. Among the alcohol-soluble proteins (from acid-PAGE data), β-gliadins showed strong correlations with the texture properties of cooked noodles. For the selected flour samples, the total protein content of flour had a stronger relationship with the noodle texture properties than did the relative proportion of different protein subgroups. Prediction equations were developed for TPA parameters of cooked noodles with SE-HPLC and rapid visco analysis data of the 30 flour samples, and it was found that about 75% of the variability in noodle hardness, gumminess, and chewiness values could be explained by protein composition and flour pasting properties combined together. About 50% of the variations in cohesiveness and springiness were accounted for by these prediction equations. © 2013 AACC International, Inc.

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