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Portland, OR, United States

Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Saini R.,Michigan State University | Ng P.K.W.,Michigan State University
Cereal Chemistry

Physicochemical properties and protein composition of 39 selected wheat flour samples were evaluated and correlated with the textural properties of Chinese hard-bite white salted noodles. Flour samples were analyzed for their protein and wet gluten contents, sedimentation volume, starch pasting properties, and dough mixing properties by farinograph and extensigraph. Molecular weight distribution of wheat flour proteins was determined with size-exclusion (SE) HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and acid- PAGE. Textural properties of Chinese hard-bite white salted noodles were determined through texture profile analysis (TPA). Hardness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness of cooked noodles were found to be related to the dough mixing properties. Both protein content and protein composition were found to be related to TPA parameters of noodles. The amount of total flour protein was positively correlated to hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of noodles. The absolute amounts of different peak proteins obtained from SE-HPLC data showed positive correlations with the hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and springiness of noodles. The proportions of these peak proteins were, however, not significantly related to texture parameters. The proportions of low-molecular-weight glutenins/ gliadins and albumins/globulins, as observed from SDS-PAGE, were correlated positively and negatively, respectively, to the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of cooked noodles. Among the alcohol-soluble proteins (from acid-PAGE data), β-gliadins showed strong correlations with the texture properties of cooked noodles. For the selected flour samples, the total protein content of flour had a stronger relationship with the noodle texture properties than did the relative proportion of different protein subgroups. Prediction equations were developed for TPA parameters of cooked noodles with SE-HPLC and rapid visco analysis data of the 30 flour samples, and it was found that about 75% of the variability in noodle hardness, gumminess, and chewiness values could be explained by protein composition and flour pasting properties combined together. About 50% of the variations in cohesiveness and springiness were accounted for by these prediction equations. © 2013 AACC International, Inc. Source

Niu M.,Jiangnan University | Niu M.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Wang L.,Jiangnan University | Chen Z.,Jiangnan University
Journal of Cereal Science

Four particle size distributions of whole-wheat flour (WWF) with mean particle sizes (MZ) of 125-μm, 96-μm, 72-μm, and 43-μm were obtained by superfine grinding. Starch damage and Farinograph water absorption were significantly affected by the reduction of particle size, while dough development time, stability, tolerance index and time to breakdown of WWF were little changed. The peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity of WWF significantly decreased as particle size reduced. Although finer WWFs produced by superfine grinding caused more discoloration of whole-wheat noodle (WWN) after 24 h storage, they still showed brighter noodle appearance (higher L*) than coarser WWFs. A significant increase in the cooking yield of WWN was noticed from the 125-μm WWF group to the 43-μm group, perhaps due to increasing damaged starch, while the 72-μm group exhibited the smallest cooking loss of WWN. Additionally, the hardness, cohesiveness, and resilience values of texture profile analysis (TPA) of cooked WWN significantly increased from the 125-μm group to the 72-μm group, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the 72-μm group revealed the largest coverage of starch granules and degree of protein network connectivity among the WWF groups. The results demonstrated that the superfine grinding technique could improve the quality of WWN by significantly reducing the particle size of WWFs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Niu M.,Jiangnan University | Niu M.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Li X.,Jiangnan University | Wang L.,Jiangnan University | And 2 more authors.
Cereal Chemistry

The effects of four inorganic phosphates on the thermodynamic and pasting properties of whole wheat flour as well as color, cooking quality, textural properties, and structural characteristics of whole wheat noodles were studied. The addition of phosphates increased the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of melting of starch in whole wheat flour. Rapid visco analysis showed that all phosphates significantly increased whole wheat flour peak viscosity and final viscosity. Moreover, the whole wheat noodles prepared with disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) exhibited brighter appearance, and the use of STPP and sodium hexametaphosphate reduced the cooking loss of whole wheat noodles. Texture profile analysis of cooked noodles revealed that the addition of phosphates significantly decreased the hardness and slightly increased the springiness, cohesiveness, and resilience. The microstructure of whole wheat noodles showed a larger degree of connectivity of the protein network and coverage of starch granules in the presence of inorganic phosphates. The results suggested that inorganic phosphates exhibited substantial effects on improving the quality of whole wheat noodles. Of the four phosphates studied, STPP appeared to be the most effective one in improving the overall properties of whole wheat noodles when they were normalized to constant phosphate content. © 2014 AACC International, Inc.. Source

Liu T.,University of Minnesota | Liu T.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Book S.L.,ICL Food Specialties | Marquart L.,University of Minnesota
LWT - Food Science and Technology

Chemical leavening is a neutralization reaction that can affect not only the opacity but also other physical and chemical properties of tortillas. Whole-wheat flour (WWF) tortillas is often associated with lack of sufficient opacity, generally considered as quality defect in tortillas. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of types and amounts of leavenings (acids and base), hot press and dough temperature on the quality attributes of WWF tortillas. Three leavening acids, three levels of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) (1%, 1.5%, and 2%), hot-press temperatures of 160 °C, 177 °C, and 193 °C, and two dough temperatures (25 °C and 35 °C) were used. Sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) produced more opaque tortillas than sodium acid pyrophosphate-28 (SAPP-28), followed by sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS). Increased amount of SBC and lower dough temperature improved opacity. Higher hot-press temperature produced lighter weight, thinner, and bigger diameter tortillas. Higher amount of SBC produced smaller, thicker, and brighter color tortillas. WWF tortillas made with SAS had the largest breaking force, while tortillas with SALP had the smallest breaking force as determined by TA-XTPlus Texture Analyzer. After 45 days of storage at room temperature, all tortillas showed decreased breaking force and extensibility. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hou G.G.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc. | Hsu Y.-H.,Wheat Marketing Center Inc.
Food Bioscience

Production of bread depends on appropriate flour quality to hold fermentation gas, primarily CO2, and a means of gas production. In typical bread, yeast (Saccharomyces sp.) provides the gas during fermentation. This yeast is usually a commercially added monoculture. In sourdough bread production, the fermentation gas is provided by yeast and Lactobacilli that are derived from natural sources and differ greatly depending on which sourdough culture was used. In this study, sourdough cultures derived from wheat, the conventional source of sourdough starter, and apple, an alternative source of non-cereal yeasts were tested for their gas production over time with a Risograph fermentation gas measuring device. Sourdough starter, levain, and bread dough derived from the apple culture significantly out-performed the wheat-derived cultures in CO2 gas production at every stage of culture elaboration and fermentation. The apple-derived culture produced about twice the fermentation gas of the wheat-derived culture in the bread dough. The results suggested that different sources of wild yeast and Lactobacilli could be used to manipulate the rate, timing and total gas production in sourdough bread-making to modify production parameters and the bread's end-use quality. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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