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Rahut D.B.,Wheat Improvement Center | Behera B.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Ali A.,Agricultural Economist
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

This paper uses data from three Bhutan Living Standard surveys (BLSS 2003, BLSS 2007, and BLSS 2012) to examine the trends and patterns of household energy consumption, and identify and analyze the factors that influence household energy choices, consumption intensity and the per capita household expenditure on energy sources in Bhutan. During the last decade significant numbers of Bhutanese households have switched to cleaner energy sources. Empirical results show that a household's choice of cleaner energy sources is driven by income level and household wealth, the age, gender and education of the household heads, access to electricity, and location. Education and income have a differential role on the choice of clean or dirty fuel; wealthier and more educated households use and rely more on clean sources of energy like electricity and liquid petroleum gas while poorer households use and rely on dirty fuel such as fuelwood and kerosene. The study shows that female-headed households are more likely to choose cleaner fuels and, above all, the availability of a clean and cost-effective source of energy within proximity to the household is an important factor in the adoption of clean energy. Several models using a variety of alternative independent variables, such as proxies for education and wealth, were estimated and confirmed the robustness of the results. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Nuss E.T.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Arscott S.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Bresnahan K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Pixley K.V.,Wheat Improvement Center | And 5 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2012

Background. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with poor health outcomes related to reproduction, growth, vision, and immunity. Biofortification of staple crops is a novel strategy for combating vitamin A deficiency in high-risk populations where staple food intakes are high. African populations are proposed beneficiaries of maize (Zea mays) biofortified with provitamin A carotenoids, often called "orange maize"because of its distinctive deep yellow-orange kernels. The color facilitates ready recognition but presents a cultural challenge to maizeconsuming populations, including those in much of Africa, who traditionally eat white varieties. Objective. This study explores the intake patterns of, as well as adaptation to, traditional foods made with provitamin A-biofortified maize compared with white maize in rural Zambian children 3 to 5 years of age (n = 189) during a 3-month feeding trial. Methods. The subjects were fed a breakfast of maize porridge (sweet mush), a lunch of maize nshima (stiff mush) with various side dishes, and an afternoon snack based on a 6-day rotating menu. The trial was conducted in 2010. The orange maize used in the trial came from three different sources. O1 maize was from the 2009 harvest and was stored in a freezer until use in 2010. O2 maize was also from the 2009 harvest and was stored in a cold room until 2010. O3 ("fresh") maize was from the 2010 harvest and was fed immediately after harvest in week 9 of the study and then stored in a freezer until milling for the final four weeks. Results. Consumption of menu items, except snacks, was influenced by week (p < .0084). The intakes of porridge and nshima made with orange maize equaled those of porridge and nshima made with white maize from week 2 onward. The intakes of porridge and nshima prepared from O1 and O2 did not differ, but intakes became significantly higher when meals made from O3 were introduced (p < .014 for porridge and p ≤ .013 for nshima). Conclusions. These results demonstrate quick adaptation to orange maize, a preference for recently harvested maize, and an optimistic outlook for similar adaptation patterns in other biofortified-maize target countries. ©2012, The United Nations University. Source


Prigge V.,University of Hohenheim | Prigge V.,Wheat Improvement Center | Xu X.,University of Hohenheim | Xu X.,Wheat Improvement Center | And 5 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2012

Haploids and doubled haploid (DH) inbred lines have become an invaluable tool for maize genetic research and hybrid breeding, but the genetic basis of in vivo induction of maternal haploids is still unknown. This is the first study reporting comparative quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of this trait in maize. We determined haploid induction rates (HIR) in testcrosses of a total of 1061 progenies of four segregating populations involving two temperate haploid inducers, UH400 (HIR = 8%) and CAUHOI (HIR = 2%), one temperate and two tropical inbreds with HIR = 0%, and up to three generations per population. Mean HIR of the populations ranged from 0.6 to 5.2% and strongly deviated from the midparent values. One QTL (qhir1) explaining up to ^p = 66% of the genetic variance was detected in bin 1.04 in the three populations involving a noninducer parent and the HIR-enhancing allele was contributed by UH400. Segregation ratios of loci in bin 1.04 were highly distorted against the UH400 allele in these three populations, suggesting that transmission failure of the inducer gamete and haploid induction ability are related phenomena. In the CAUHOI × UH400 population, seven QTL were identified on five chromosomes, with qhir8 on chromosome 9 having ^p>20% in three generations of this cross. The large-effect QTL qhir1 and qhir8 will likely become fixed quickly during inducer development due to strong selection pressure applied for high HIR. Hence, marker-based pyramiding of small-effect and/or modifier QTL influencing qhir1 and qhir8 may help to further increase HIR in maize. We propose a conceptual genetic framework for inheritance of haploid induction ability, which is also applicable to other dichotomous traits requiring progeny testing, and discuss the implications of our results for haploid inducer development. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America. Source

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