Wetland Conservation Center

Warsaw, Poland

Wetland Conservation Center

Warsaw, Poland
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Plachno B.J.,Jagiellonian University | Stpiczynska M.,University of Warsaw | Krajewski L.,Wetland Conservation Center | Swiatek P.,University of Silesia | And 2 more authors.
Protoplasma | Year: 2017

There is an enormous diversity in the structure of the flower palate of the carnivorous rootless genus Utricularia. This study aims to examine the structure of the palates in Utricularia bremii Heer and U. minor L of the Utricularia sect. Utricularia, which have a glandular palate type. In both species, the palate has only one type of glandular trichomes. Because of the occurrence of cell wall ingrowths in its glandular cells, any exudation may be transported via eccrinous secretion. It was proposed that the palate trichomes of the examined species act as scent glands and that the palate may play a role as an unguentarium. Both U. bremii and U. minor are of an open flower type. Thus, U. bremii and U. minor flowers can be penetrated by small, weak insects, which then easily have access to their generative structure. Small Hymenoptera (member of families Mymaridae and Braconidae) were observed as flower visitors of the male-sterile species Utricularia bremii. © 2017 The Author(s)

Klimkowska A.,University of Groningen | Klimkowska A.,Institute for Land Reclamation and Grassland Farming | Klimkowska A.,Wetland Conservation Center | Kotowski W.,Wetland Conservation Center | And 7 more authors.
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2010

We investigated the effects of different restoration treatments on the development of fen meadow communities: (1) depth of topsoil removal, with shallow (circa 20 cm) and deep (circa 40 cm) soil removal applied, (2) transfer of seed-containing hay, and (3) access of large animals. We carried out a full factorial experiment with all combinations of these factors and monitored it for 4 years. We studied the effect of seed availability in the soil seed bank on species abundance in the vegetation and compared it to the effect of species introduction by hay. We observed large differences in species composition between different treatments after 4 years. The combination of hay transfer, deep soil removal, and exclusion of large animals resulted in a community with highest similarity to the target vegetation. We found that the transfer of seeds with hay had a larger effect on species abundance than the soil seed bank. Hay transfer appeared to have important consequences on vegetation development because it speeded up the establishment of the target vegetation. © 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Klimkowska A.,University of Groningen | Klimkowska A.,Institute for Land Reclamation and Grassland Farming IMUZ | Klimkowska A.,Wetland Conservation Center | Dzierza P.,Wetland Conservation Center | And 5 more authors.
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2010

We carried out an eco-hydrological analysis to evaluate the most important effects of land use changes on the hydrological functioning of a fen system in Poland. We measured water levels (hydraulic heads) and water flow along a transect through the study area and also analysed land use changes using historical maps. Major hydrological changes occurred after c. 1950 when a dense drainage network was constructed and in the last decade when large fishponds were built. Nowadays, water levels in most of the fens and fen meadows are too low and the fluctuations too large for a long-term preservation of fen ecosystems. The mean water tables range from 0.3 to 0.8 m below soil surface with fluctuations from 0.7 up to 1.5 m. A second important cause of the hydrological changes of the system was the afforestation of the adjacent infiltration areas leading to increased evapotranspiration and a decreased groundwater flow to the wetlands. Finally, a recent increase in groundwater abstraction for agricultural purposes has probably lowered the groundwater even further. We conclude that a full restoration of the fen is not possible under the present conditions. An alternative restoration goal could be conservation and restoration of species-rich fen meadows, but also then improving the hydrological conditions will be necessary. While the focus is often on the local factors influencing the restoration prospects of a fen system, the regional processes are at least equally important. In this paper we discuss an importance of both local and regional factors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Klimkowska A.,University of Groningen | Klimkowska A.,The Institute for Land Reclamation and Grassland Farming | Klimkowska A.,Wetland Conservation Center | Dzierza P.,Wetland Conservation Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2010

Shrub removal is commonly used for management and restoration of species-rich fen meadows. A common problem after initial shrub cutting of willow is a vigorous re-sprouting and quick re-growth. In this paper we test experimentally what is an effective management option, limiting the re-growth of willow after cutting, on peat soils. In this experiment (split-plot set-up) we tested mowing of different intensity, removal of young shoots by hand and herbicide application, to find out which of them effectively limits willow re-growth. All applied treatments limited re-sprouting, but to different extents. We found that mowing had a strong, negative effect on increase in height of the shoots and on increase of the number of leaves, while an application of Roundup strongly limited the number of new shoots, in comparison with control. When all measured characteristics were accounted for, the combination of Roundup use and annual mowing was most effective. If the use of herbicide is to be avoided, intensive mowing in the first years (×2 or ×3) should be applied, followed by annual mowing. We concluded that removal of young shoots by hand did not have a stronger effect in weakening the willow re-growth than mowing. The treatment with herbicide application alone was not effective. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Klimkowska A.,University of Antwerp | Klimkowska A.,Wetland Conservation Center | Dzierza P.,Wetland Conservation Center | Brzezinska K.,Wetland Conservation Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2010

Topsoil removal is an effective, but also expensive method of nature restoration on fens and fen meadows. The high cost is a factor limiting the application of this method, especially in Central European countries, where investments in nature restoration are low. Can we partly balance the high costs of restoration with the method of topsoil removal, by utilising the degraded soil? We explore and roughly assess the benefits from re-using the removed soil. The cost limitation lies mainly in the transport. This is due to the difficulties of moving the soil within the project site and the often high costs of transporting and storing soil out of the site. The soil substrate can be utilised in forestry or horticulture, but is of rather poor quality, compared to commercially sold garden soil. In general, the respondents were not willing to pay for the substrate, pay much less than the price of commercial soil or they were not directly interested in using it. The assessment of possible gains in our case study indicated that, even if the soil is utilised in some way, the high costs cannot be fully balanced. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Kotowski W.,University of Warsaw | Dzierza P.,Wetland Conservation Center | Dzierza P.,Institute for Life science and Technology | Czerwinski M.,Institute for Life science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2013

Drainage and shrub expansion are the main threats to the biodiversity of fens and fen meadows, whereas rewetting and the removal of shrubby species are frequently applied restoration measures. We examine whether removal of shrubs enhances recovery of target species in a degraded fen subjected to moderate rewetting. The study was located in the drained fen Całowanie (central Poland), where remnants of open fen communities and willow-invaded fens exist in former turf-pits, surrounded by degraded meadows on dried peat. All these three habitat types were included in a monitoring grid, which covered an area of 2.2. ha. Within 55 quadrats of 20 m × 20 m we monitored occurrence of 52 species, i.e. two groups of target species (fen indicators and wet meadow indicators) and indicators of two failure scenarios (degraded fen indicators and eutrophic wetland indicators), during six years following shrub removal, rewetting and re-application of conservational mowing, using a 3-step ordinal abundance scale. NMDS ordination revealed a gradual convergence of shrub removal plots and reference plots. We noticed significant effects of year and habitat type on all indicator groups, but only fen indicators have shown a clear (increasing) trend within shrub removal plots. Degraded fen indicators (ruderal and opportunistic species) initially expanded on shrub removal plots, but this effect disappeared in the following years. We conclude that shrub removal enhances establishment of target species in a moderately drained and then rewetted fen and attribute this effect to lowered competition for light. However, given high costs of this method and long-lasting problems with shrub resprouts, we recommend applying shrub removal only to recently overgrown sites, which still retained high botanical diversity. Heavily degraded fen meadows did not react on the increase of moisture, which indicates that more advanced restoration measures, such as top soil removal are needed there. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.

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