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Cashmore A.W.,University of New South Wales | Noller J.,Center for Oral Health Strategy | Ritchie J.,Griffith University | Johnson B.,Westmead Center for Oral Health | Blinkhorn A.S.,University of Sydney
Health Promotion Journal of Australia | Year: 2011

Issue addressed: Reorienting primary care dental services towards prevention is a priority for improving the oral health of Australian children with extensive dental caries. We explored the altitudes and beliefs of dental staff about the factors that helped or hindered the establishment and implementation of a hospital based parent counselling program to manage existing, and prevent new, carious lesions in children. A further aim was to explore the influence of the program on the hospital's reorientation to prevention. Methods: Eight of nine program staff participated in two focus group interviews, and two co-ordinating staff participated in semi structured interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Interview recordings and transcripts were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis. Results The participants identified a number of factors that they felt influenced the establishment and implementation of the program, including the dental team's support of the initiative, the advantages of building on existing clinic infrastructure and procedures, the utility of harnessing dental assistants as a resource for oral health promotion, and the confidence of dental professionals to provide parent counselling. Conclusion: Efforts to establish a preventive program in a public paediatric dental service should ensure that all members of the dental team are engaged during all phases of the program, that dental assistants are trained and supported to deliver parent counselling, and that inter professional partnerships with services such as dietetics are fostered.

Thomson S.E.,University of Sydney | McLennan S.V.,University of Sydney | Hennessy A.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | Hennessy A.,University of Western Sydney | And 7 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2010

Aims/hypothesis: Chronic non-healing wounds are a common complication of diabetes. Prolonged inflammation and decreased matrix accumulation may contribute. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is induced during normal wound healing, but its regulation in diabetic wounds is unknown. We developed a primate model for the study of in vivo wound healing in baboons with long diabetes duration. Methods: Drum implants were placed subcutaneously into thighs of diabetic and non-diabetic control baboons. After 2 and 4 weeks the skin incision sites were removed for measurement of breaking strength and epithelial thickness. Drum implants were removed for analysis of granulation tissue and inflammatory cells, CTGF and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Degradation of added CTGF by wound fluid was also examined. Results: Healed incision site skin was stiffer (less elastic) in diabetic baboons and epithelial remodelling was slower compared with controls. Granulation tissue from diabetic baboons was reduced at 2 and 4 weeks, with increased vessel lumen areas at 4 weeks. Macrophages were reduced while neutrophils persisted in diabetic tissue. In diabetic wound tissue at 4 weeks there was less CTGF induced, as shown by immunohistochemistry, compared with controls. In contrast, immunoreactive fragments of CTGF were significantly increased in whole tissue lysate in diabetic baboons, suggesting that CTGF is redistributed in diabetes from granulation tissue into wound fluid. When recombinant human CTGF was co-incubated with wound fluid, increased CTGF degradation products were observed in both control and diabetic samples. Conclusions/interpretation: This baboon model of wound healing reflects the abnormal microenvironment seen in human diabetic wounds and provides insights into the dysregulation of CTGF in diabetic wounds. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Sankar V.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Hearnden V.,University of Sheffield | Hull K.,Westmead Center for Oral Health | Juras D.V.,University of Zagreb | And 6 more authors.
Oral Diseases | Year: 2011

There are few topical formulations used for oral medicine applications most of which have been developed for the management of dermatological conditions. As such, numerous obstacles are faced when utilizing these preparations in the oral cavity, namely enzymatic degradation, taste, limited surface area, poor tissue penetration and accidental swallowing. In this review, we discuss common mucosal diseases such as oral cancer, mucositis, vesiculo-erosive conditions, infections, neuropathic pain and salivary dysfunction, which could benefit from topical delivery systems designed specifically for the oral mucosa, which are capable of sustained release. Each condition requires distinct penetration and drug retention profiles in order to optimize treatment and minimize side effects. Local drug delivery may provide a more targeted and efficient drug-delivery option than systemic delivery for diseases of the oral mucosa. We identify those mucosal diseases currently being treated, the challenges that must be overcome and the potential of novel therapies. Novel biological therapies such as macromolecular biological drugs, peptides and gene therapy may be of value in the treatment of many chronic oral conditions and thus in oral medicine if their delivery can be optimized. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

Dental emergencies often present to primary care providers in general practice and Emergency Departments (ED), who may be unable to manage them effectively due to limited knowledge, skills and available resources. This may impact negatively on patient outcomes. Provision of a short educational workshop intervention in the management of such emergencies, including education in supporting resources, may provide a practical strategy for assisting clinicians to provide this aspect of comprehensive primary care. This descriptive study used a validated questionnaire survey instrument to measure the effectiveness of a short multimodal educational intervention through the uptake and perceived usefulness of supporting resources at 6 months following the intervention. Between 2009 and 2010, 15 workshops, of which eight were for regional and rural hospital ED doctors, were conducted by the same presenter using the same educational materials and training techniques. A sample of 181 workshop participants, 63% of whom were in rural or remote practice and engaged in providing primary care medical services, returned responses at 6 months on the perceived usefulness of the dental emergencies resource. Thirty percent of clinicians had used the dental emergencies resource within the six-month follow-up period. Significance was demonstrated between professional category and use of the resource, with emergency registrars utilising this resource most and GPs the least. The Dental Handbook, specifically designed for ED use, and tooth-filling material contained within this resource, were deemed the most useful components. There were overall positive open-ended question responses regarding the usefulness of the resource, especially when it was made available to clinicians who had attended the education workshops. Utilisation and perceived usefulness of a supporting resource at 6 months are indicators of the effectiveness of a short workshop educational intervention in the management of dental emergencies by primary care providers. This education may have greater relevance to rural and remote practice where dental services may be limited.

Ilia E.,Private Practice | Metcalfe K.,Westmead Center for Oral Health | Heffernan M.,University of Sydney
Australian Dental Journal | Year: 2014

Background There is a high prevalence of orofacial trauma in rugby union players. Mouthguards reduce complications following dental injuries, should dental injuries occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oral trauma and the significance of mouthguard use in adult amateur rugby union players in New South Wales, Australia. Methods Questionnaires were distributed to players in rugby union clubs. It questioned players about their mouthguard use and orofacial trauma experience; the type of injury, complications, if a mouthguard was worn, where treatment was sought and outcome. Results The prevalence of orofacial trauma in rugby union players is 64.9%. The most common injury was laceration to intraoral and extraoral soft tissues at 44.5%. Of all orofacial injuries reported, 41.9% were to the dentition. Following dental injury, loss of the tooth was the most common complication (34.7%). 76.9% of players wore mouthguards. By wearing a mouthguard, the risk reduction for ongoing complications following dental injuries was 18.5% (p-value = 0.009). Of these, 10.4% (p-value = 0.45) represented loss of the tooth. Conclusions Rates of orofacial trauma and complications in amateur rugby union players are high in Australia. Use of mouthguards results in significant risk reduction for complications following dental injuries, including loss of tooth. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

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