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Prabhu S.A.,University of Mysore | Kini K.R.,University of Mysore | Raj S.N.,University of Mysore | Moerschbacher B.M.,Westflische Wilhelms University Mnster | Shetty H.S.,University of Mysore
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica | Year: 2012

Polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein (PGIP) is a defense protein found in plant cell walls. It prevents the degradation of pectin by modulating the endo-polygalacturonase activity. The present study has used heterologous anti-bean PGIP probes to investigate the role of PGIP in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] resistance against downy mildew caused by oomycete pathogen Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet. Northern blot analysis using bean pgip2 DNA fragment as probe showed an early and marked induction of transcripts (∼1.2 kb) upon pathogen-inoculation in pearl millet cultivar resistant to downy mildew, with the maximum level observed at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation (h.p.i.). Western blot analysis of pearl millet total cell wall proteins using antibodies against bean PGIP showed the presence of a major band of ∼43 kDa, and several minor ones. The protein accumulation was higher in resistant seedlings than in susceptible seedlings with a differential expression observed only in the case of incompatible interaction. Immunocytochemical localization in epidermal peelings of coleoptiles and tissue-printing showed a similar trend in the PGIP accumulation. PGIP was found to localize in the epidermal as well as in the vascular regions of tissues. Higher accumulation was observed in the stomatal guard cells of resistant cultivar inoculated with the pathogen. PGIP activity of pearl millet total protein extracts when assayed against Aspergillus niger PG displayed differential PG inhibitory activities between the resistant and suceptible cultivars with resistant sample showing the highest inhibition of 16, post-pathogen treatment. Thus, PGIP appeared to be an important player in pearl milletS. graminicola interaction leading to host resistance. © 2012 The Author. Source


Lyon S.W.,University of Stockholm | Nathanson M.,University of Stockholm | Spans A.,Westflische Wilhelms University Mnster | Grabs T.,University of Stockholm | And 9 more authors.
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012

Specific discharge variations within a mesoscale catchment were studied on the basis of three synoptic sampling campaigns. These were conducted during stable flow conditions within the Krycklan catchment study area in northern Sweden. During each campaign, about 80 individual locations were measured for discharge draining from catchment areas ranging between 0.12 and 67 km 2. These discharge samplings allowed for the comparison between years within a given season (September 2005 versus September 2008) and between seasons within a given year (May 2008 versus September 2008) of specific discharge across this boreal landscape. There was considerable variability in specific discharge across this landscape. The ratio of the interquartile range (IQR) defined as the difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles of the specific discharges to the median of the specific discharges ranged from 37% to 43%. Factor analysis was used to explore potential relations between landscape characteristics and the specific discharge observed for 55 of the individual locations that were measured in all three synoptic sampling campaigns. Percentage wet area (i.e., wetlands, mires, and lakes) and elevation were found to be directly related to the specific discharge during the drier September 2008 sampling while potential annual evaporation was found to be inversely related. There was less of a relationship determined during the wetter post spring flood May 2008 sampling and the late summer rewetted September 2005 sampling. These results indicate the ability of forests to "dry out" parts of the catchment over the summer months while wetlands "keep wet" other parts. To demonstrate the biogeochemical implications of such spatiotemporal variations in specific discharge, we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports with available data for the May 2008 and September 2008 samplings using both the spatially variable observed specific discharges and the spatially constant catchment average values. The average absolute difference in DOC export for the various subcatchments between using a variable and using a constant specific discharge was 28% for the May 2008 sampling and 20% for the September 2008 sampling. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source


Capasso V.,University of Milan | Engbers R.,Westflische Wilhelms University Mnster | La Torre D.,University of Milan
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2010

In this paper the classical Solow model is extended, by considering spatial dependence of the physical capital and technological progress, and by introducing a nonconcave production function. The physical capital and technological progress accumulation equations are governed by semilinear parabolic differential equations which describe their evolution over time and space. The convergence to a steady state according to different hypotheses on the production function is discussed. The analysis is focused on an S-shaped production function, which allows the existence of saddle points and poverty traps. The evolution of this system over time, and its convergence to the steady state is described mainly through numerical simulations. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Giese J.,University of Bern | Giese J.,Westflische Wilhelms University Mnster | Giese J.,Louis Ingenieurgeologie GmBH | Seward D.,Victoria University of Wellington | Schreurs G.,University of Bern
Tectonics | Year: 2012

The evolution of the rift shoulder and the sedimentary sequence of the Morondava basin in western Madagascar was mainly influenced by a Permo-Triassic continental failed rift (Karroo rift), and the early Jurassic separation of Madagascar from Africa. Karroo deposits are restricted to a narrow corridor along the basement-basin contact and parts of this contact feature a steep escarpment. Here, apatite fission track (AFT) analysis of a series of both basement and sediment samples across the escarpment reveals the low-temperature evolution of the exhuming Precambrian basement in the rift basin shoulder and the associated thermal evolution of the sedimentary succession. Seven basement and four Karroo sediment samples yield apparent AFT ages between ∼330 and ∼215 Ma and ∼260 and ∼95 Ma, respectively. Partially annealed fission tracks and thermal modeling indicate post-depositional thermal overprinting of both basement and Karroo sediment. Rocks presently exposed in the rift shoulder indicate temperatures of >60°C associated with this reheating whereby the westernmost sample in the sedimentary plain experienced almost complete resetting of the detrital apatite grains at temperatures of about ∼90-100°C. The younging of AFT ages westward indicates activity of faults, re-activating inherited Precambrian structures during Karroo sedimentation. Furthermore, our data suggest onset of final cooling/exhumation linked to (1) the end of Madagascar's drift southward relative to Africa during the Early Cretaceous, (2) activity of the Marion hot spot and associated Late Cretaceous break-up between Madagascar and India, and (3) the collision of India with Eurasia and subsequent re-organization of spreading systems in the Indian Ocean. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union. Source


Haus R.,Westflische Wilhelms University Mnster | Arnold G.,Westflische Wilhelms University Mnster | Arnold G.,German Aerospace Center
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2010

The radiation measurements of VIRTIS-M-IR (15 μm) on Venus Express provide a valuable database for systematic studies of the atmosphere and surface of the Earth's sister planet. The present paper focuses on the investigation of physical parameters that determine the retrieval accuracy of deep atmosphere and surface features of Venus including compositional conditions, continuum absorption effects, and spectroscopic input data required for radiative transfer simulations. The parameter discussion shall serve as a reference for ongoing and future work on methodical and simulation input data improvements. The high variability of the nightside atmospheric and surface emission window radiances with respect to cloud opacity and surface elevation is modeled and discussed in direct comparison with measurements performed over the northern hemisphere. Venus surface elevation is retrieved using the 1.18 and 1.02 μm emission windows where radiance ratios are well suited to de-cloud the measurement data. In general, the ratio-based VIRTIS topography is in good agreement with the Magellan topography, but differences occur in localized areas. The paper discusses possible origins of such differences including surface emissivity "anomalies". Surface emissivity variations that may be due to changes in the chemical composition (mineralogy) and surface texture are important indicators of the nature of the surface material. Preliminary radiance retrievals along a number of complete northern orbits reveal a trend towards lower values of highland surface emissivity compared to the surrounding lowlands. Already the Magellan radar experiment suggested compositional variations at moderately high altitudes over the tesserae. They probably indicate a more felsic component giving a hint to older surface forming processes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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