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Western Springs, MA, United States

Westfield State University is a comprehensive, coeducational, four-year public university in Westfield, Massachusetts. It was founded in 1838 by noted educator and social reformer Horace Mann as the first public co-educational college in America without barrier to race, gender, or economic class. Wikipedia.

Stary C.M.,Stanford University | Xu L.,Stanford University | Sun X.,Stanford University | Ouyang Y.-B.,Stanford University | And 5 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - : MicroRNA (miR)-200c increases rapidly in the brain after transient cerebral ischemia but its role in poststroke brain injury is unclear. Reelin, a regulator of neuronal migration and synaptogenesis, is a predicted target of miR-200c. We hypothesized that miR-200c contributes to injury from transient cerebral ischemia by targeting reelin. METHODS - : Brain infarct volume, neurological score and levels of miR-200c, reelin mRNA, and reelin protein were assessed in mice subjected to 1 hour of middle cerebral artery occlusion with or without intracerebroventricular infusion of miR-200c antagomir, mimic, or mismatch control. Direct targeting of reelin by miR-200c was assessed in vitro by dual luciferase assay and immunoblot. RESULTS - : Pretreatment with miR-200c antagomir decreased post-middle cerebral artery occlusion brain levels of miR-200c, resulting in a significant reduction in infarct volume and neurological deficit. Changes in brain levels of miR-200c inversely correlated with reelin protein expression. Direct targeting of the Reln 3′ untranslated region by miR-200c was verified with dual luciferase assay. Inhibition of miR-200c resulted in an increase in cell survival subsequent to in vitro oxidative injury. This effect was blocked by knockdown of reelin mRNA, whereas application of reelin protein afforded protection. CONCLUSIONS - : These findings suggest that the poststroke increase in miR-200c contributes to brain cell death by inhibiting reelin expression, and that reducing poststroke miR-200c is a potential target to mitigate stroke-induced brain injury. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

Remote camera-traps are commonly used to estimate the abundance, diversity, behavior and habitat use of wildlife in an inexpensive and nonintrusive manner. Because of the increasing use of remote-cameras in wildlife studies, students interested in wildlife biology should be exposed to the use of remote-cameras early in their academic careers. Although there is a rich literature on the use of remote-cameras in wildlife studies, few have provided meaningful examples within an academic course setting. Due to the time constraint of a typical semester, many laboratory exercises generate data sufficient for the activity but lack inference to actual wildlife populations. This article describes a series of laboratory exercises that are both useful to student learning and provide relevant biological data. Students use remote-cameras to measure diversity, diel behavior (i.e. over a 24-hour period) and the relative abundance of mammals in a biological corridor. Other abundance methods such as mark-recapture or random encounter models that require marked individuals and/or extensive temporal and spatial methodology are often not practical in a course framework. The approach described in this article teaches students about research design and local wildlife abundance and behavior, using simple methodologies employed over a three-lab period. © 2016, Association of College and Univesity Biology Educators. All rights reserved.

Fakunmoju S.B.,Westfield State University | Bammeke F.O.,University of Lagos
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2015

Despite the exposure of children to physical abuse in more than one setting in many regions of the world, little is known about the associations of physical abuse in different settings (e.g., at home and school) with anxiety disorders and depression among adolescents and youths. Using a convenience sample of 502 adolescents and youths ages 13-23 years from five public and three private senior secondary schools in Nigeria, the study examined associations of gender and physical abuse by parents with anxiety disorders as well as associations of physical abuse by parents and/or teachers with depression in the sample, 39.6% of whom had experienced physical abuse at home and in school. Findings suggest that physical abuse by parents was associated with anxiety disorders and depression than physical abuse by teachers. Being female was equally associated with anxiety disorders. Implications of findings for mental health, practice, research, and theory are discussed. © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

Michael G.,Westfield State University
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2014

This essay examines strategies to counter the threat of lone wolf terrorism. Lone wolves implement a tactical approach dubbed "leaderless resistance," which has become popular in several extremist subcultures. Although most episodes of lone wolf terrorism have not been highly destructive, there are notable exceptions that have claimed a substantial number of victims. The lone wolf trend should be contextualized in the evolution of conflict and strategy in which smaller and smaller entities figure prominently. Elements of the counterinsurgency doctrine can be applied to lone wolf terrorism. A comprehensive counterterrorism strategy must prepare for the prospect of lone wolf terrorism because of the increasing number of small-scale attacks, the large number of soft targets in contemporary society, and the potential damage that individuals can cause with the use of weapons of mass destruction. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Theis K.,Westfield State University
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2015

PQcalc is an online calculator designed to support students in college-level science classes. Unlike a pocket calculator, PQcalc allows students to set up problems within the calculator just as one would on paper. This includes using proper units and naming quantities strategically in a way that helps finding the solution. Results of calculations come with units of measurement and are given with a reasonable number of significant figures. The features of PQcalc were chosen to allow learners to spend more time on scientific reasoning while figuring out and communicating well-annotated, structured, and mathematically correct solutions to quantitative problems. © 2015 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.

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