Western Washington University is one of six public universities in the U.S. state of Washington. It is located in Bellingham. WWU was founded as the state-funded New Whatcom Normal School in 1893, succeeding a private school of teaching for women.WWU offers a variety of bachelor's and master's degrees. In 2014, there were 15,060 students, 14,407 of whom were undergraduate students, and 764 faculty. Its athletic teams are known as the Vikings and the school colors are Western blue, bay blue, and white. Wikipedia.
Gone J.P.,University of Michigan |
Trimble J.E.,Western Washington University
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2012
As descendants of the indigenous peoples of the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) have experienced a resurgence in population and prospects since the beginning of the twentieth century. Today, tribally affiliated individuals number over two million, distributed across 565 federally recognized tribal communities and countless metropolitan and nonreservation rural areas. Although relatively little evidence is available, the existing data suggest that AIAN adults and youth suffer a disproportionate burden of mental health problems compared with other Americans. Specifically, clear disparities have emerged for AIAN substance abuse, posttraumatic stress, violence, and suicide. The rapid expansion of mental health services to AIAN communities has, however, frequently preceded careful consideration of a variety of questions about critical components of such care, such as the service delivery structure itself, clinical treatment processes, and preventive and rehabilitative program evaluation. As a consequence, the mental health needs of these communities have easily outpaced and overwhelmed the federally funded agency designed to serve these populations, with the Indian Health Service remaining chronically understaffed and underfunded such that elimination of AIAN mental health disparities is only a distant dream. Although research published during the past decade has substantially improved knowledge about AIAN mental health problems, far fewer investigations have explored treatment efficacy and outcomes among these culturally diverse peoples. In addition to routine calls for greater clinical and research resources, however, AIAN community members themselves are increasingly advocating for culturally alternative approaches and opportunities to address their mental health needs on their own terms. © Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Pillitteri L.J.,Western Washington University |
Torii K.U.,University of Washington |
Torii K.U.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute |
Torii K.U.,Japan Science and Technology Agency
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2012
The main route for CO2 and water vapor exchange between a plant and the environment is through small pores called stomata. The accessibility of stomata and predictable division series that characterize their development provides an excellent system to address fundamental questions in biology. Stomatal cell-state transition and specification are regulated by a suite of transcription factors controlled by positional signaling via peptide ligands and transmembrane receptors. Downstream effectors include several members of the core cell-cycle genes. Environmentally induced signals are integrated into this essential developmental program to modulate stomatal development or function in response to changes in the abiotic environment. In addition, the recent identification of premitotic polarly localized proteins from both Arabidopsis and maize has laid a foundation for the future understanding of intrinsic cell polarity in plants. This review highlights the mechanisms of stomatal development through characterization of genes controlling cell-fate specification, cell polarity, cell division, and cell-cell communication during stomatal development and discusses the genetic framework linking these molecular processes with the correct spacing, density, and differentiation of stomata. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Purcell J.E.,Western Washington University
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2012
Human populations have been concentrated along and exploiting the coastal zones for millennia. Of regions with the highest human impacts on the oceans (Halpern et al. 2008), 6 of the top 10 have recently experienced blooms or problems with jellies. I review the time lines of human population growth and their effects on the coastal environment. I explore evidence suggesting that human activities-specifically, seafood harvest, eutrophication, hard substrate additions, transport of nonindigenous species, aquaculture, and climate change-may benefit jelly populations. Direct evidence is lacking for most of these factors; however, numerous correlations show abundant jellies in areas with warm temperatures and low forage fish populations. Jelly populations fluctuate in ∼10- and ∼20-year cycles in concert with solar and climate cycles. Global warming will provide a rising baseline against which climate cycles will cause fluctuations in jelly populations. The probable acceleration of anthropogenic effects may lead to further problems with jellies. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: TECTONICS | Award Amount: 134.09K | Year: 2016
Large-scale faults (>1000 kilometer) are first-order features observed at Earths active and ancient plate boundaries. Active faults, such as the San Andreas, accommodate relative motion between tectonic plates. Ancient plate boundary faults now within plates, such as the New Madrid fault in Missouri, can also continue to be active, as demonstrated by major earthquakes on them. Why some plate boundary faults remain the locus of crustal deformation and uplift 100s of millions of years after they form has remained a topic of debate. This study will provide ideas on how and why some major faults that form at plate boundaries persist as zones of weakness in the crust, prone to reactivation. The results will ultimately inform a broad group of scientists on deep crustal processes that control the location of seismicity, high heat flow, and hydrothermal systems that may have implications for the understanding of geologic hazards and resources. In addition to the scientific goals of the project, important societal relevant outcomes of the project will include the training of graduate and undergraduate students in an important STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) discipline. The project will facilitate collaborative research between three U.S. research institutions, thus contributing to support of scientific infrastructure. It will provide research funding for two early career gescientists. The project will contribute to the broadening of participation of underrepresented groups in STEM. Importantly, the project will foster international collaboration and exchange between U.S. and Argentine scientists. Results of the research will be broadly disseminated through presentations at professional society meetings and in peer-reviewed scientific publications.
The presence of major fault zones within continental crust which show evidence for reactivation over 100s of millions of years defies models for continuum deformation of the continents, wherein faults are viewed as passive features responding to mantle flow. Large-scale faults occur on every continent and many long-lived intracontinental fault systems record complex histories of reactivation, in particular localizing convergent and strike-slip deformation. This research will test competing models for the origin of persistent large-scale faults by studying the tectonic history of exhumed middle and lower crust sections of an ancient fault zone. End member models predict that such fault zones originate either as: 1) convergent-collisional boundaries between blocks of different strength, 2) transform boundaries along pre-existing zones of weakness, or 3) strike-slip boundaries within the arc-forearc region of oblique subduction settings. The Valle Fertil fault zone of western Argentina is an approximately 1200-kilometer-long major crustal lineament that records at least 400 million years of intermittent deformation and is an ideal location to test the above models because of excellent geophysical constraints on crustal strength contrasts, variable depths of exposure along strike, a well constrained tectonic evolution, and ideal mineral assemblages for dating the history of deformation within the fault. The results from the Valle Fertil fault can be applied to other intracontinental faults to address what factors determine the origin of major structures within complex orogens and the processes by which they ultimately become large-scale faults with complex histories of continued reactivation.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 736.75K | Year: 2015
A goal of the Tribal Colleges and Universities Program (TCUP) is to increase the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) instructional and research capacities of specific institutions of higher education that serve the Nations indigenous students. Expanding the STEM curricular offerings at these institutions expands the opportunities of their students to pursue challenging, rewarding careers in STEM fields, provides for research studies in areas that may be culturally significant, and encourages a community and generational appreciation for science and mathematics education. This project aligns directly with that goal, and moreover will inform the body of knowledge about the importance and conduct of undergraduate and graduate research experiences in recruiting and retaining underrepresented individuals into STEM studies, and preparing the next generation of STEM professionals. The connection of faculty to research and thereby the students to culturally and geographically relevant research is an important step in producing retained students who are more likely to pursue advanced degrees. For those students entering the workforce directly from a tribal college it is equally important that they have a well-defined skill set in mathematics, science, and technology for entry into the STEM workforce.
Northwest Indian College (NWIC) and Western Washington University (WWU) will collaborate to increase and modify the geosciences curriculum at the tribal college, establish an educational continuum that will facilitate the articulation of NWIC graduates into the graduate geoscience curriculum at WWU, and develop a shared research agenda between the two institutions that uses the ecosystem of the Bellingham Bay as a theme for scholarly studies and place-based instruction. Administrative changes at both institutions will include student mentoring, articulation agreements, co-listing courses, and cross-cultural faculty development.