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Bellingham, WA, United States

Western Washington University is one of six public universities in the U.S. state of Washington. It is located in Bellingham. WWU was founded as the state-funded New Whatcom Normal School in 1893, succeeding a private school of teaching for women.WWU offers a variety of bachelor's and master's degrees. In 2014, there were 15,060 students, 14,407 of whom were undergraduate students, and 764 faculty. Its athletic teams are known as the Vikings and the school colors are Western blue, bay blue, and white. Wikipedia.

Gone J.P.,University of Michigan | Trimble J.E.,Western Washington University
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology

As descendants of the indigenous peoples of the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) have experienced a resurgence in population and prospects since the beginning of the twentieth century. Today, tribally affiliated individuals number over two million, distributed across 565 federally recognized tribal communities and countless metropolitan and nonreservation rural areas. Although relatively little evidence is available, the existing data suggest that AIAN adults and youth suffer a disproportionate burden of mental health problems compared with other Americans. Specifically, clear disparities have emerged for AIAN substance abuse, posttraumatic stress, violence, and suicide. The rapid expansion of mental health services to AIAN communities has, however, frequently preceded careful consideration of a variety of questions about critical components of such care, such as the service delivery structure itself, clinical treatment processes, and preventive and rehabilitative program evaluation. As a consequence, the mental health needs of these communities have easily outpaced and overwhelmed the federally funded agency designed to serve these populations, with the Indian Health Service remaining chronically understaffed and underfunded such that elimination of AIAN mental health disparities is only a distant dream. Although research published during the past decade has substantially improved knowledge about AIAN mental health problems, far fewer investigations have explored treatment efficacy and outcomes among these culturally diverse peoples. In addition to routine calls for greater clinical and research resources, however, AIAN community members themselves are increasingly advocating for culturally alternative approaches and opportunities to address their mental health needs on their own terms. © Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Mustoe G.E.,Western Washington University
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms

Honeycomb weathering occurs in two environments in Late Cretaceous and Eocene sandstone outcrops along the coastlines of south-west Oregon and north-west Washington, USA, and south-west British Columbia, Canada. At these sites honeycomb weathering is found on subhorizontal rock surfaces in the intertidal zone, and on steep faces in the salt spray zone above the mean high tide level. In both environments, cavity development is initiated by salt weathering. In the intertidal zone, cavity shapes and sizes are primarily controlled by wetting/drying cycles, and the rate of development greatly diminishes when cavities reach a critical size where the amount of seawater left by receding tides is so great that evaporation no longer produces saturated solutions. Encrustations of algae or barnacles may also inhibit cavity enlargement. In the supratidal spray zone, honeycomb weathering results from a dynamic balance between the corrosive action of salt and the protective effects of endolithic microbes. Subtle environmental shifts may cause honeycomb cavity patterns to continue to develop, to become stable, or to coalesce to produce a barren surface. Cavity patterns produced by complex interactions between inorganic processes and biologic activity provide a geological model of 'self-organization'. Surface hardening is not a factor in honeycomb formation at these study sites. Salt weathering in coastal environments is an intermittently active process that requires particular wind and tidal conditions to provide a supply of salt water, and temperature and humidity conditions that cause evaporation. Under these conditions, salt residues may be detectable in honeycomb-weathered rock, but absent at other times. Honeycomb weathering can form in only a few decades, but erosion rates are retarded in areas of the rock that contain cavity patterns relative to adjacent non-honeycombed surfaces. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Bunn A.G.,Western Washington University

I demonstrate new functionality for the Dendrochronology Program Library in R (dplR) that allows for flexible statistical crossdating of tree-ring data. Using a well-dated ring-width file, I give examples of how dplR can be used to examine correlations between each series and a master chronology according to overlapping time periods (segments) specified by the user; examine moving correlations of suspect series; and compute cross-correlation functions to identify specific dating issues. I also show how automatically generated skeleton plots can be used to visually crossdate. Much of the terminology and approach used for crossdating in dplR will be familiar to users of COFECHA. © 2010 Istituto Italiano di Dendrocronologia. Source

Pillitteri L.J.,Western Washington University | Torii K.U.,University of Washington | Torii K.U.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Torii K.U.,Japan Science and Technology Agency
Annual Review of Plant Biology

The main route for CO2 and water vapor exchange between a plant and the environment is through small pores called stomata. The accessibility of stomata and predictable division series that characterize their development provides an excellent system to address fundamental questions in biology. Stomatal cell-state transition and specification are regulated by a suite of transcription factors controlled by positional signaling via peptide ligands and transmembrane receptors. Downstream effectors include several members of the core cell-cycle genes. Environmentally induced signals are integrated into this essential developmental program to modulate stomatal development or function in response to changes in the abiotic environment. In addition, the recent identification of premitotic polarly localized proteins from both Arabidopsis and maize has laid a foundation for the future understanding of intrinsic cell polarity in plants. This review highlights the mechanisms of stomatal development through characterization of genes controlling cell-fate specification, cell polarity, cell division, and cell-cell communication during stomatal development and discusses the genetic framework linking these molecular processes with the correct spacing, density, and differentiation of stomata. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

McLean K.C.,Western Washington University
New directions for child and adolescent development

Autobiographical reasoning has been found to be a critical process in identity development; however, the authors suggest that existing research shows that such reasoning may not always be critical to another important outcome: well-being. The authors describe characteristics of people such as personality and age, contexts such as conversations, and experiences such as transgressions, which may hinder adaptive reasoning. They also propose alternatives to autobiographical reasoning for managing challenging events and constructing the life story, which include different kinds of meaning-making than those primarily focused on in the current literature. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company. Source

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