Western University of Health science is a private, non-profit, graduate school for the health professions, with a main campus located on 22 acres in downtown Pomona, California, and an additional medical school campus on 50 acres in Lebanon, Oregon. WesternU offers degrees in osteopathic medicine, dental medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, nursing, physician assistant studies, physical therapy, pharmacy, biomedical science, and veterinary medicine. With an enrollment of 3,916 students , WesternU is one of the largest graduate schools for the health professions in California, offering 21 academic programs in nine colleges. The university also operates two patient care centers, and has a pet wellness center on its Pomona campus.Founded in 1977, the first program at WesternU was its medical school, the College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific . Since that time, several additional programs have opened. When the College of Veterinary Medicine opened in 2003, it was the first veterinary school to open in the United States in 20 years. In 2007, WesternU became the first university in the nation to appoint a female as dean of a veterinary medical school. In 2009, three new colleges opened: dental medicine, optometry, and podiatric medicine. In 2011, the university opened an additional campus in Lebanon, Oregon known as the College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific - Northwest . All of the programs at WesternU have professional accreditation, and the university is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The medical school is also accredited by the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation. Wikipedia.
Bi X.,Western University of Health Sciences
Sub-Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010
Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease is associated with accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in late endosomes/lysosomes in virtually every organ; however, neurodegeneration represents the fatal cause for the disease. Genetic analysis has identified loss-of-function mutations in NPC1 and NPC2 genes as the molecular triggers for the disease. Although the precise function of these proteins has not yet been clarified, recent research suggests that they orchestrate cholesterol efflux from late endosomes/lysosomes. NPC protein deficits result in impairment in intracellular cholesterol trafficking and dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis. Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis is also associated with deregulation of autophagic activity and early-onset neuroinflammation, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of NPC disease. This chapter reviews recent achievements in the investigation of disruption of cholesterol homeostasis-induced neurodegeneration in NPC disease, and provides new insight for developing a potential therapeutic strategy for this disorder. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.
Probabilistic mapping of descriptive health status responses onto health state utilities using bayesian networks: An empirical analysis converting SF-12 into EQ-5D utility index in a national US sample
Le Q.A.,Western University of Health Sciences |
Doctor J.N.,University of Southern California
Medical Care | Year: 2011
Background: As quality-adjusted life years have become the standard metric in health economic evaluations, mapping health-profile or disease-specific measures onto preference-based measures to obtain quality-adjusted life years has become a solution when health utilities are not directly available. However, current mapping methods are limited due to their predictive validity, reliability, and/or other methodological issues. Objectives: We employ probability theory together with a graphical model, called a Bayesian network, to convert health-profile measures into preference-based measures and to compare the results to those estimated with current mapping methods. Methods: A sample of 19,678 adults who completed both the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v2) and EuroQoL 5D (EQ-5D) questionnaires from the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was split into training and validation sets. Bayesian networks were constructed to explore the probabilistic relationships between each EQ-5D domain and 12 items of the SF-12v2. The EQ-5D utility scores were estimated on the basis of the predicted probability of each response level of the 5 EQ-5D domains obtained from the Bayesian inference process using the following Methods: Monte Carlo simulation, expected utility, and most-likely probability. Results were then compared with current mapping methods including multinomial logistic regression, ordinary least squares, and censored least absolute deviations. Results: The Bayesian networks consistently outperformed other mapping models in the overall sample (mean absolute error=0.077, mean square error=0.013, and R overall=0.802), in different age groups, number of chronic conditions, and ranges of the EQ-5D index. Conclusion: Bayesian networks provide a new robust and natural approach to map health status responses into health utility measures for health economic evaluations. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Seffinger M.A.,Western University of Health Sciences
Journal of the American Osteopathic Association | Year: 2010
Background:Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is a distinctive modality commonly used by osteopathic physicians to complement conventional treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, including those that cause low back pain. Osteopathic manipulative treatment is defined in the Glossary of Osteopathic Terminology as: "The therapeutic application of manually guided forces by an osteopathic physician (US Usage) to improve physiologic function and/or support homeostasis that has been altered by somatic dysfunction. OMT employs a variety of techniques." Somatic dysfunction is defined as: "Impaired or altered function of related components of the somatic (body framework) system: skeletal, arthrodial and myofascial structures, and their related vascular, lymphatic, and neural elements. Somatic dysfunction is treatable using osteopathic manipulative treatment." Previous published guidelines have been based on literature reviews and metaanalyses of spinal manipulation for low back pain. They have not specifically addressed OMT and generally have focused on spinal manipulation as an alternative to conventional treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of OMT for somatic dysfunction associated with low back pain by osteopathic physicians and osteopathic practitioners trained in osteopathic palpatory diagnosis and manipulative treatment. Methods: Computerized bibliographic searches of MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, MANTIS, OSTMED (OSTMED.DR), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were supplemented with additional database and manual searches of the literature. Six trials, involving eight OMT vs control treatment comparisons, were included because they were randomized controlled trials of OMT that involved blinded assessment of low back pain in ambulatory settings. Data on trial methodology, OMT and control treatments, and low back pain outcomes were abstracted by two independent reviewers. Effect sizes were computed using Cohen d statistic, and meta-analysis results were weighted by the inverse variance of individual comparisons. In addition to the overall metaanalysis, subgroup meta-analyses were performed according to control treatment, country where the trial was conducted, and duration of follow-up. Sensitivity analyses were performed for both the overall and subgroup meta-analyses. Results:Osteopathic manipulative treatment significantly reduced low back pain (effect size, -0.30; 95% confidence interval, -0.47 to -0.13; P=.001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated significant pain reductions in trials of OMT vs active treatment or placebo control and OMT vs no treatment control. There were significant pain reductions with OMT regardless of whether trials were performed in the United Kingdom or the United States. Significant pain reductions were also observed during short-, inter mediate-, and long-term follow-up. Conclusions:Osteopathic manipulative treatment significantly reduces low back pain. The level of pain reduction is clinically important, greater than expected from placebo effects alone, and may persist through the first year of treatment. Additional research is warranted to elucidate mechanistically how OMT exerts its effects, to determine if OMT benefits extend beyond the first year of treatment, and to assess the cost-effectiveness of OMT as a complementary treatment for low back pain.
Johannesen M.,Western University of Health Sciences |
Logiudice D.,Aged Care
Age and Ageing | Year: 2013
Objective: to undertake a systematic literature review of risk factors for abuse in community-dwelling elders, as a first step towards exploring the clinical utility of a risk factor framework. Search strategy and selection criteria: a search was undertaken using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English up to March 2011, to identify original studies with statistically significant risk factors for abuse in community-dwelling elders. Studies concerning self-neglect and persons aged under 55 were excluded.Results: forty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, with 13 risk factors being reproducible across a range of settings in high-quality studies. These concerned the elder person (cognitive impairment, behavioural problems, psychiatric illness or psychological problems, functional dependency, poor physical health or frailty, low income or wealth, trauma or past abuse and ethnicity), perpetrator (caregiver burden or stress, and psychiatric illness or psychological problems), relationship (family disharmony, poor or conflictual relationships) and environment (low social support and living with others except for financial abuse).Conclusions: current evidence supports the multifactorial aetiology of elder abuse involving risk factors within the elder person, perpetrator, relationship and environment. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.
Murad J.P.,Western University of Health Sciences
Current molecular medicine | Year: 2013
The premise of targeted therapy was born from an intimate understanding of the unique biological pathways and endpoints which are implicated in the development of different disease states and conditions. In addition, the identification of the most appropriate drugs to use for targeted drug therapy has aided in growing interest of the pharmaceutical industry to allocate more resources to monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics. This being the case, it is important to understand antibody based therapeutics, some of the currently Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved mAbs in different disease states, as well as the future direction of mAb therapies. In this article, we will provide a critical overview, and discuss a selection of antibody based therapeutics, including their bioengineered structural and functional elements. Furthermore, a segment of the currently FDA-approved mAb antibody therapies, those in research, or in investigation for disease states and conditions ranging from autoimmune disease, inflammatory response, immunosuppression, cancer, including antibody-drug conjugates, immunotherapy, and exciting prospects for antiplatelet and antithrombotic monoclonal antibody therapeutics will be reviewed. Finally, we will discuss our predictions and aspirations for the future directions of mAb-based therapeutic interventions.