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Huppke P.,University of Gottingen | Brendel C.,University of Gottingen | Korenke G.C.,Childrens Hospital | Marquardt I.,Childrens Hospital | And 11 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2012

Copper (Cu) is a trace metal that readily gains and donates electrons, a property that renders it desirable as an enzyme cofactor but dangerous as a source of free radicals. To regulate cellular Cu metabolism, an elaborate system of chaperones and transporters has evolved, although no human Cu chaperone mutations have been described to date. We describe a child from a consanguineous family who inherited homozygous mutations in the SLC33A1, encoding an acetyl CoA transporter, and in CCS, encoding the Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase. The CCS mutation, p.Arg163Trp, predicts substitution of a highly conserved arginine residue at position 163, with tryptophan in domain II of CCS, which interacts directly with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Biochemical analyses of the patient's fibroblasts, mammalian cell transfections, immunoprecipitation assays, and Lys7Δ (CCS homolog) yeast complementation support the pathogenicity of the mutation. Expression of CCS was reduced and binding of CCS to SOD1 impaired. As a result, this mutation causes reduced SOD1 activity and may impair other mechanisms important for normal Cu homeostasis. CCS-Arg163Trp represents the primary example of a human mutation in a gene coding for a Cu chaperone. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Balasubramaniam S.,Metabolic Unit | Balasubramaniam S.,University of Western Australia | Duley J.A.,University of Queensland | Christodoulou J.,Western Sydney Genetics Program | Christodoulou J.,University of Sydney
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2014

Inborn errors involving enzymes essential for pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism have provided new insights into their fundamental physiological roles as vital constituents of nucleic acids as well as substrates of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and in oxidative phosphorylation. Genetic aberrations of pyrimidine pathways lead to diverse clinical manifestations including neurological, immunological, haematological, renal impairments, adverse reactions to analogue therapy and association with malignancies. Maintenance of cellular nucleotides depends on the three aspects of metabolism of pyrimidines: de novo synthesis, catabolism and recycling of these metabolites. Of the ten recognised disorders of pyrimidine metabolism treatment is currently restricted to only two disorders: hereditary orotic aciduria (oral uridine therapy) and mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE; allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplant and enzyme replacement). The ubiquitous role that pyrimidine metabolism plays in human life highlights the importance of improving diagnostic evaluation in suggestive clinical settings, which will contribute to the elucidation of new defects, future development of novel drugs and therapeutic strategies. Limited awareness of the expanding phenotypic spectrum, with relatively recent descriptions of newer disorders, compounded by considerable genetic heterogeneity has often contributed to the delays in the diagnosis of this group of disorders. The lack of an easily recognisable, easily measurable end product, akin to uric acid in purine metabolism, has contributed to the under-recognition of these disorders.This review describes the currently known inborn errors of pyrimidine metabolism, their variable phenotypic presentations, established diagnostic methodology and recognised treatment options. © 2014, SSIEM.


Balasubramaniam S.,Metabolic Unit | Balasubramaniam S.,University of Western Australia | Duley J.A.,University of Queensland | Christodoulou J.,Western Sydney Genetics Program | Christodoulou J.,University of Sydney
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2014

Inborn errors of purine metabolism exhibit broad neurological, immunological, haematological and renal manifestations. Limited awareness of the phenotypic spectrum, the recent descriptions of newer disorders and considerable genetic heterogeneity, have contributed to long diagnostic odysseys for affected individuals. These enzymes are widely but not ubiquitously distributed in human tissues and are crucial for synthesis of essential nucleotides, such as ATP, which form the basis of DNA and RNA, oxidative phosphorylation, signal transduction and a range of molecular synthetic processes. Depletion of nucleotides or accumulation of toxic intermediates contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders. Maintenance of cellular nucleotides depends on the three aspects of metabolism of purines (and related pyrimidines): de novo synthesis, catabolism and recycling of these metabolites. At present, treatments for the clinically significant defects of the purine pathway are restricted: purine 5′-nucleotidase deficiency with uridine; familial juvenile hyperuricaemic nephropathy (FJHN), adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) deficiency, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) deficiency and phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase superactivity (PRPS) with allopurinol; adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiencies have been treated by bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and ADA deficiency with enzyme replacement with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ADA, or erythrocyte-encapsulated ADA; myeloadenylate deaminase (MADA) and adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiencies have had trials of oral ribose; PRPS, HPRT and adenosine kinase (ADK) deficiencies with S-adenosylmethionine; and molybdenum cofactor deficiency of complementation group A (MOCODA) with cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP). In this review we describe the known inborn errors of purine metabolism, their phenotypic presentations, established diagnostic methodology and recognised treatment options. © 2014, SSIEM.


Berrier K.L.,Duke University | Kazi Z.B.,Duke University | Prater S.N.,Duke University | Bali D.S.,Duke University | And 10 more authors.
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2015

Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) prolongs survival in infantile Pompe disease (IPD). However, the majority of cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)-negative (CN) patients have immune responses with significant clinical decline despite continued ERT. We aimed to characterize immune responses in CN patients with IPD receiving ERT monotherapy.Methods:A chart review identified 20 CN patients with IPD treated with ERT monotherapy for ≥6 months. Patients were stratified by anti-rhGAA antibody titers: high sustained antibody titers (HSAT; ≥51,200) at least twice; low titers (LT; <6,400) throughout treatment; or sustained intermediate titers (SIT; 6,400-25,600).Results:Despite early initiation of treatment, the majority (85%) of CN patients developed significant antibody titers, most with HSAT associated with invasive ventilation and death. Nearly all patients with HSAT had at least one nonsense GAA mutation, whereas the LT group exclusively carried splice-site or frameshift mutations. Only one patient in the HSAT group is currently alive after successful immune modulation in the entrenched setting.Conclusion:Immunological responses are a significant risk in CN IPD; thus induction of immune tolerance in the naive setting should strongly be considered. Further exploration of factors influencing immune responses is required, particularly with the advent of newborn screening for Pompe disease. © American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.


de Brouwer A.P.M.,Institute of Genetic and Metabolic Diseases | van Bokhoven H.,Institute of Genetic and Metabolic Diseases | van Bokhoven H.,Donders Institute for Brain | Nabuurs S.B.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetases (PRSs) catalyze the first step of nucleotide synthesis. Nucleotides are central to cell function, being the building blocks of nucleic acids and serving as cofactors in cellular signaling and metabolism. With this in mind, it is remarkable that mutations in phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1), which is the most ubiquitously expressed gene of the three PRS genes, are compatible with life. Mutations described thus far in PRPS1 are all missense mutations that result in PRS-I superactivity or in variable levels of decreased activity, resulting in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5 (CMTX5), Arts syndrome, and X-linked nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness (DFN2). Patients with PRS-I superactivity primarily present with uric acid overproduction, mental retardation, ataxia, hypotonia, and hearing impairment. Postlingual progressive hearing loss is found as an isolated feature in DFN2 patients. Patients with CMTX5 and Arts syndrome have peripheral neuropathy, including hearing impairment and optic atrophy. However, patients with Arts syndrome are more severely affected because they also have central neuropathy and an impaired immune system. The neurological phenotype in all four PRPS1-related disorders seems to result primarily from reduced levels of GTP and possibly other purine nucleotides including ATP, suggesting that these disorders belong to the same disease spectrum. Preliminary results of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) supplementation in two Arts syndrome patients show improvement of their condition, indicating that SAM supplementation in the diet could alleviate some of the symptoms of patients with PRPS1 spectrum diseases by replenishing purine nucleotides (J.C., unpublished data). © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics.

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