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Harrisburg, PA, United States

Leuenberger W.,Indiana University of Pennsylvania | Leuenberger W.,SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry | Bearer S.,Nature Conservancy | Duchamp J.,Indiana University of Pennsylvania | And 3 more authors.
Natural Areas Journal | Year: 2016

Scrub oak barrens were once distributed throughout portions of the northeastern United States. This fire-dependent community covered over 809,000 ha in Pennsylvania during the mid-1900s, but was reduced to about 7132 ha by the late 1900s. Decline of scrub oak barrens is attributed to development, fire suppression, and colonization by fire-intolerant trees. Scrub oak barrens are a state imperiled ecosystem and in recent years, efforts to restore late successional barrens through mechanical cutting and prescribed fire have been initiated in Pennsylvania. Scrub oak barrens support high species richness, including several rare or declining species of plants and animals. This ecosystem is also known for supporting rare Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species. We used light traps and bait stations to compare Lepidoptera communities in restored and late successional scrub oak barrens in northeastern Pennsylvania. A total of 13,386 individuals were identified, representing 373 species. Nine species are state-listed, with four of these species detected exclusively in restored barrens. Few differences in Lepidoptera species richness, diversity, or abundance were found between restored and late successional barrens. Moth communities were similar across all sites and forb presence partially explained moth variance. Several species (n = 197) were found in both restored and late successional sites. However, several species were unique to restored (n = 128) and late successional sites (n = 48). Our findings suggest scrub oak barrens should be managed to create a mosaic of successional stages throughout the landscape if Lepidoptera diversity is a conservation goal. Source


Mcgraw J.B.,West Virginia University | Lubbers A.E.,Centre College at Danville | Van der Voort M.,New Mexico Highlands University | Mooney E.H.,Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts | And 4 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2013

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an uncommon to rare understory plant of the eastern deciduous forest. Harvesting to supply the Asian traditional medicine market made ginseng North America's most harvested wild plant for two centuries, eventually prompting a listing on CITES Appendix II. The prominence of this representative understory plant has led to its use as a phytometer to better understand how environmental changes are affecting many lesser-known species that constitute the diverse temperate flora of eastern North America. We review recent scientific findings concerning this remarkable phytometer species, identifying factors through its history of direct and indirect interactions with humans that have led to the current condition of the species. Harvest, deer browse, and climate change effects have been studied in detail, and all represent unique interacting threats to ginseng's long-term persistence. Finally, we synthesize our current understanding by portraying ginseng's existence in thousands of small populations, precariously poised to either escape or be drawn further toward extinction by the actions of our own species. © 2013 The New York Academy of Sciences. Source


Renzaglia K.S.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Crandall-Stotler B.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Pressel S.,Natural History Museum in London | Duckett J.G.,Natural History Museum in London | And 2 more authors.
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2015

The liverwort Haplomitrium gibbsiae is shown to regularly produce spores released in the form of permanent dyad pairs. Developmental studies indicate that the dyads are produced via a unique half-lobed configuration of the developing sporocyte. Many fossil cryptophytes of Siluro-Devonian age, which are clearly embryophytes based on their morphology, contain permanent spore dyads in their sporangia, but this is the first demonstration of their occurrence in a living plant, a species belonging to Haplomitriopsida, which resolves in a clade that is considered to be sister to all remaining liverworts. Dispersed spore-like dyads are found in the rock record as far back as the mid-Cambrian, but most researchers still regard the first occurrence of isomorphic, tetrahedral tetrads in the mid-Ordovician as the benchmark age for the origin of land plants. Regardless of the geological antiquity of the embryophytes, it appears that H.gibbsiae has retained a non-simultaneous form of sporogenesis that may ultimately be traced to a charophytic origin. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London. Source


Trademark
Western Pennsylvania Conservancy | Date: 2009-09-15

Prerecorded audiotapes featuring the history and construction of an historic home; audiotapes, videotapes and digital media, namely, CDs, DVDs and downloadable audio files referencing an historic home and its conservation; audiotapes, videotapes and digital media, namely, CDs, DVDs and downloadable audio files referencing land and water conservation in Western Pennsylvania; audiotapes, videotapes and digital media, namely, CDs, DVDs and downloadable audio files referencing gardens and green spaces in Western Pennsylvania, compact discs featuring music recorded at concerts at an historic home; and exposed photographic slides; downloadable electronic magazines and newsletters devoted to natural resource conservation, land and water conservation, community conservation, gardens and green spaces and the preservation of historic architecture. Stationery, posters, calendars, note cards, sketch pads, pens and pencils, postcards; brochures, booklets, books, newsletters and magazines relating to land and water conservation, gardens and green spaces and architecture and design of an historic home; guide books to an historic home and books containing photographs and text relating to an historic home; paper shopping bags, unmounted posters, greeting cards, letter openers, paper weights, stickers. totebags, umbrellas and briefcase portfolios. mugs, travel mugs and ice buckets. clothing goods, namely, tee shirts, sweatshirts, hats, scarves and ties. Promoting public awareness of the need for land and natural resource conservation and remediation; consulting in the field of natural resource management; retail gift shop services; promoting the public awareness of conservation, environmental awareness and environmental preservation; information about promoting public awareness about land and water conservation. charitable fundraising services in the field of natural resource conservation and real estate consultation relating to land acquisition and disposition; charitable fund raising; financial and real-estate affairs, namely, charitable fundraising, acquisition and management of land for public on-foot recreational use, and acquisition and management of land for resource protection. Conducting tours designed to educate members of the public on environmental awareness and environmental preservation, land conservation, conservation easements, best practices in agriculture, forest and watershed management and architecture working in harmony with nature. Museum services; educational services, namely, conducting seminars and workshops designed to educate members of the public on environmental awareness and environmental preservation land conservation, conservation easements, best practices in agriculture, forest and watershed management and architecture working in harmony with nature; educational research and educational demonstrations in the field of conservation, environmental awareness and environmental preservation; Information about gardens and green spaces for public admission. Consulting in the field of land use planning.


Trademark
Western Pennsylvania Conservancy | Date: 2009-02-24

Prerecorded audiotapes featuring the history and construction of an historic home; compact discs featuring music recorded at concerts at an historic home; and exposed photographic slides. Note cards, sketch pads, pens and pencils, postcards, booklets and books relating to the architecture and design of an historic home; guide books to an historic home and books containing photographs and text relating to an historic home; paper shopping bags, unmounted posters, greeting cards, letter openers, paperweights, and stickers; newsletters devoted to natural resource conservation, community conservation, and the preservation of historic architecture. mugs. clothing goods, namely, hats, tee shirts, sweatshirts, scarves and ties. Retail gift shop services; promoting public awareness of conservation, environmental awareness and environmental preservation. charitable fund raising. Museum services; educational services, namely, conducting guided tours of an historic home; educational services, namely, conducting seminars and workshops designed to educate members of the public on architecture working in harmony with nature; educational research and educational demonstrations in the field of conservation, environmental awareness and environmental preservation.

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