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Monmouth, OR, United States

Western Oregon University is a public liberal arts college located in Monmouth, Oregon, United States. It was originally established in 1856 by Oregon pioneers as Monmouth University. Subsequent names include Oregon Normal School, Oregon College of Education, and Western Oregon State College. Western Oregon University incorporates both the College of Education and the College of Liberal Arts and science. Enrollment is approximately 6,200 students. Wikipedia.

Armstrong W.J.,Western Oregon University | Grinnell D.C.,Hope College | Warren G.S.,Hope College
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2010

To determine the effectiveness of a single, 1-minute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a viable warm-up activity, 90 subjects (30 men; 60 women, mean age = 19 ± 1 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to either a nonvibration control group or 1 of 8 WBV treatments (4 frequencies × 2 AMplitudes). Subjects stood with the feet shoulder width apart and the knees flexed 10° on a Next Generation Power Plate for 1 minute with the frequency (30, 35, 40, or 50 Hz) and amplitude (2-4 or 4-6 mm) settings at the assigned levels. Before, 1, 5,10,15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after the WBV or control treatment, subjects performed a series of countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs) measured using a Vertec™ vertical jump tester. Comparisons were made of changes in the countermovement vertical jump height (CMJH) overtime and between groups, frequencies, and amplitudes using repeated measures analysis of variance (α ≤ 0.05). There were significant differences in CMJH over time (p = 0.008); however, these were similar for all groups, frequencies, and amplitudes (p > 0.88). Some athletes may benefit from using WBV as a warm-up activity, if the timing of WBV is optimized. The effect of WBV on performance is likely variable and minimal, with a small window of effectiveness. Gender differences were not examined, and the optimal duration, intensity, and postural position are still unclear and warrant further study. © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Armstrong W.J.,Western Oregon University
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2014

Results: Correlations of HM:MMGp–p, HM:MMGCvT, HMCvT:MMGCvT, HMCvT:MMGp–p, were low (r = 0.34, 0.33, 0.09, and 0.12, respectively, p < 0.001); and correlations of HM:HMCvT, MMGCvT:MMGp–p, were moderate-to-high (r = 0.69 and 0.97, respectively, p < 0.001). Correlations for individuals ranged from 0.61 to 0.99 across comparisons. The time at which maximal intensities occurred reflected the transition from a predominant H-reflex to the onset of the M-wave and declining lag times were noted with increasing intensity.Conclusions: The intensity analysis provides insight into the frequency characteristics of the H-reflex and M-wave not seen in traditional analysis of the H-reflex. The intensity analysis may be a useful tool in studying individual variations and changes in the contraction velocities of skeletal muscle.Purpose: The relationship between mechanomyography (MMG) and electromyography (sEMG) during electrically evoked muscle contraction was examined using the von Tscharner “intensity analysis,” which describes the power of a non-stationary signal as a function of both frequency and time.Method: Data for 8 college-aged participants (3 males; 5 females) with measurable H-reflexes were analyzed. Recruitment curves for H-reflex (H), M-wave (M) using sEMG, and peak-to-peak MMG (MMGp–p) were elicited through incremental tibial nerve stimulation. The maximum peak-to-peak values for H and M for each sample were summed (HM); and maximum intensity values were measured for MMG, H, and M following the intensity analysis and computation of total intensity (MMGCvT, HCvT, MCvT). HCvT and MCvT were subsequently added together (HMCvT) for comparisons. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Riolli L.,California State University, Sacramento | Savicki V.,Western Oregon University
International Journal of Stress Management | Year: 2010

The effectiveness of different strategies of coping and the impact of coping diversity were tested under traumatic stress conditions. Participants were 632 U.S. soldiers stationed in Iraq (mean age = 27.7, 98% male). Results indicate that four of nine functional coping strategies (including some emotion-focused coping) as defined by the COPE scale were inversely related to psychological symptom, whereas five of six dysfunctional strategies were positively related. Overall, in comparison to the norm group, soldiers showed a depressed level of functional coping strategies. Hierarchical regression, used to control for demographics and coping strategy intercorrelations, indicated that positive reinterpretation, emotional social support, and humor were most strongly related to lower psychological symptoms, whereas venting emotions, denial, mental disengagement, behavioral disengagement, and alcohol and drug use were related to higher levels of psychological symptoms. Two indices of coping diversity were tested. The index more strongly related to higher psychological adjustment was the sum of deviations from the mean of specific coping strategies combined with the alignment of functional and dysfunctional strategy clusters. Implications for research and application were discussed. © 2010 American Psychological Association. Source

Karr J.E.,Western Oregon University
Nutritional neuroscience | Year: 2011

With increasing awareness of the effects of nutrition on physical and mental health, researchers have begun to further investigate the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on health and the brain; however, these benefits remain unclear across different age groups. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current evidence on the cognitive effects of n-3 PUFA throughout the lifespan. An exhaustive review of the literature on the effects of n-3 PUFA on various aspects of cognition, across the lifespan, was conducted. The research suggests that n-3 PUFA positively affect pre-natal neurodevelopment; however, this cognitive-enhancing effect might diminish post-natally with maturation, as no research on child populations has clearly tied dietary n-3 PUFA to improved cognitive skills. Overall, few studies have examined the cognitive effects of n-3 PUFA through childhood, young adulthood, and middle age. At later ages, multiple studies found evidence suggesting that n-3 PUFA can protect against neurodegeneration and possibly reduce the chance of developing cognitive impairment. Age groups central to the lifespan require further investigation into the effects that n-3 PUFA might have on their cognitive skills. The research examining the extremities of the lifespan provides evidence that n-3 PUFA are essential for neurodevelopment and cognitive maintenance in older adulthood. Future research must develop more consistent methodologies, as variable dosages, supplementation periods, and cognitive measures across different studies have led to disparate results, making the evidence less comparable and difficult to synthesize. Source

Asamizu S.,Oregon State University | Xie P.,Oregon State University | Brumsted C.J.,Oregon State University | Flatt P.M.,Oregon State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate cyclases are enzymes that utilize the pentose phosphate pathway intermediate, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, to generate cyclic precursors of many bioactive natural products, such as the antidiabetic drug acarbose, the crop protectant validamycin, and the natural sunscreens mycosporine-like amino acids. These proteins are phylogenetically related to the dehydroquinate (DHQ) synthases from the shikimate pathway and are part of the more recently recognized superfamily of sugar phosphate cyclases, which includes DHQ synthases, aminoDHQ synthases, and 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthases. Through genome mining and biochemical studies, we identified yet another subset of DHQS-like proteins in the actinomycete Actinosynnema mirum and the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca DW4/3-1. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to 2-epi-valiolone, which is predicted to be an alternative precursor for aminocyclitol biosynthesis. Comparative bioinformatics and biochemical analyses of these proteins with 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthases (EEVS) and desmethyl-4-deoxygadusol synthases (DDGS) provided further insights into their genetic diversity, conserved amino acid sequences, and plausible catalytic mechanisms. The results further highlight the uniquely diverse DHQS-like sugar phosphate cyclases, which may provide new tools for chemoenzymatic, stereospecific synthesis of various cyclic molecules. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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