Monmouth, OR, United States

Western Oregon University
Monmouth, OR, United States

Western Oregon University is a public liberal arts college located in Monmouth, Oregon, United States. It was originally established in 1856 by Oregon pioneers as Monmouth University. Subsequent names include Oregon Normal School, Oregon College of Education, and Western Oregon State College. Western Oregon University incorporates both the College of Education and the College of Liberal Arts and science. Enrollment is approximately 6,200 students. Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 17, 2017

The Community for Accredited Online Schools, a leading resource provider for higher education information, has announced the best online colleges and universities in Oregon for 2017. 12 four-year schools made the list, with Oregon State University, University of Oregon, Linfield College—McMinnville Campus, Willamette University and Western Oregon University taking the top five spots. Of the 9 two-year colleges that were also commended, Linn-Benton Community College, Chemeketa Community College, Klamath Community College, Mt. Hood Community College and Southwestern Oregon Community College were recognized as the top five schools. “Some students have scheduling or geographical limitations that prevent them from earning a degree in a traditional classroom setting,” said Doug Jones, CEO and founder of “These Oregon schools address those problems by offering online programs that give all students access to high-quality, flexible learning options that suits their unique needs.” To earn a spot on the Community for Accredited Online Schools list, colleges and universities must be accredited, public or private not-for-profit institutions. Each college is also ranked based on data points such as the availability of financial aid, graduation rates, academic and student services and student/teacher ratios. For more details on where each school falls in the rankings and the data and methodology used to determine the lists, visit: Oregon’s Best Online Four-Year Schools for 2017 include the following: Concordia University-Portland Corban University Eastern Oregon University Linfield College-McMinnville Campus Marylhurst University Northwest Christian University Oregon Health & Science University Oregon Institute of Technology Oregon State University University of Oregon Western Oregon University Willamette University Oregon’s Best Online Two-Year Schools for 2017 include the following: Blue Mountain Community College Chemeketa Community College Clackamas Community College Klamath Community College Linn-Benton Community College Mt Hood Community College Portland Community College Southwestern Oregon Community College Tillamook Bay Community College About Us: was founded in 2011 to provide students and parents with quality data and information about pursuing an affordable, quality education that has been certified by an accrediting agency. Our community resource materials and tools span topics such as college accreditation, financial aid, opportunities available to veterans, people with disabilities, as well as online learning resources. We feature higher education institutions that have developed online learning programs that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational success.

News Article | April 17, 2017
Site:, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has released its list of Oregon’s best colleges and universities for 2017. Of the 22 four-year schools that made the list, Willamette University, Linfield College, University of Portland, Pacific University and Lewis & Clark College scored highest. Of the 16 two-year schools that were also included, Southwestern Oregon Community College, Clackamas Community College, Columbia Gorge Community College, Chemeketa Community College and Mt. Hood Community College were the top five schools. A full list of the 38 schools is included below. “The job market in Oregon is rallying, with unemployment recently dropping to a record low,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of “The schools on our list have proven they provide the education and employment resources that translate into measurable student success after graduation.” To be included on Oregon’s “Best Colleges” list, schools must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit institutions. Each college is also scored on additional metrics such as career and academic resources, annual alumni earnings 10 years after entering college, financial aid opportunities, student/teacher ratios, and graduation rates. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the “Best Colleges in Oregon” list, visit: The Best Four-Year Colleges in Oregon for 2017 include: Concordia University-Portland Corban University Eastern Oregon University George Fox University Lewis & Clark College Linfield College-McMinnville Campus Marylhurst University Multnomah University Northwest Christian University Oregon Health & Science University Oregon Institute of Technology Oregon State University Pacific Northwest College of Art Pacific University Portland State University Reed College Southern Oregon University University of Oregon University of Portland Warner Pacific College Western Oregon University Willamette University Best Two-Year Colleges in Oregon for 2017 include: Blue Mountain Community College Central Oregon Community College Chemeketa Community College Clackamas Community College Clatsop Community College Columbia Gorge Community College Klamath Community College Lane Community College Linn-Benton Community College Mt Hood Community College Portland Community College Rogue Community College Southwestern Oregon Community College Tillamook Bay Community College Treasure Valley Community College Umpqua Community College About Us: was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.

News Article | April 17, 2017

CORVALLIS, Ore. - Frequent, long-term instruction in physical education not only helps adolescents be more fit but also equips them with knowledge about how regular physical activity relates to good health, research at Oregon State University shows. The findings are important for several reasons. One is that regular physical education, which is on the decline nationwide, strongly correlated with students meeting the federal recommendation of at least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The results also showed more than one adolescent in five reported no physical education at all; nearly 40 percent of the students in the 459-person sample, whose ages ranged from 12 to 15, were obese or overweight; and only 26.8 percent met the federal government's physical activity guidelines. "Perhaps some were not meeting the guidelines because fewer than 35 percent actually knew what the guidelines were for their age group," said study co-author Brad Cardinal, a professor in OSU's School of Biological and Population Health Sciences and a nationally recognized expert on the benefits of exercise. The guidelines call for an hour or more of physical activity at least five days a week. The findings by OSU's College of Public Health and Human Sciences indicate that a trend of decline in physical education mandates for middle-school students is detrimental to developing the knowledge, interests and skills that serve as a foundation for a lifelong healthy lifestyle. Physical activity also has been shown to improve cognitive function and academic performance, Cardinal said. "We have the physical activity guidelines for a reason, and they're based on good science," he said. "With only slightly more than one in four adolescents meeting the guidelines, today's youth are being shortchanged in terms of their holistic development. They are not being prepared to live the proverbial good life." Cardinal notes that new guidelines will be released in 2018. "Because of a growing propensity toward inactivity in daily life, such as increased media consumption and screen time, the guidelines very well may have to be ratcheted up to compensate," Cardinal said. Like physical education, participation in sports also correlated with more accurate student perceptions of the amount of physical activity necessary for good health, as well as better performance on a variety of muscular fitness-related tests. "This underscores the importance of quality physical education in schools and the added value of sports participation," Cardinal said. "The junior high/middle school years are a vulnerable and pivotal time in which students are typically required to take at least some physical education for at least part of the year, whereas after their freshman year in high school, most students aren't required to take any. It's a time when experiences in physical education and sports, whether positive or negative, can make or break whether an adolescent chooses to continue a physically active lifestyle." Cardinal points out that in Oregon, 2017 is supposed to represent the final year in a decade-long, statute-mandated ramp-up of physical education in public schools, but the reality is something different. Portland Public Schools, he noted, just announced a cutback to 30 minutes of physical education every other week, whereas the law calls for 225 minutes per week for middle school students and 150 for elementary school students. "In the federal Every Student Succeeds Act, physical education is a core subject, on par with language, math and science. Its status was elevated for a reason," Cardinal said. "If you're physically active, you're going to be healthier and stronger and have fewer behavioral problems, and your cognitive function is going to be better. "Physical education trumps sports in a head-to-head comparison of the two," he added, "and when you have physical education plus sports, that's when you have students who are the healthiest, fittest, strongest and most active." Findings were published in the American Journal of Health Promotion. OSU alumnus Paul Loprinzi, now with the University of Mississippi, is the lead author, and the other co-authors are Marita Cardinal of Western Oregon University and Charles Corbin of Arizona State University.

Liu J.,Western Oregon University
Proceedings of EduHPC 2016: Workshop on Education for High-Performance Computing - Held in conjunction with SC 2016: The International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis | Year: 2016

In this paper, we present our Concurrent Systems class, where parallel programming and parallel and distributed computing (PDC) concepts have been taught for more than 20 years. Despite several rounds of changes in hardware, the class maintains its goals of allowing students to learn parallel computer organizations, studying parallel algorithms, and writing code to be able to run on parallel and distributed platforms. We discuss the benefits of such a class, reveal the key elements in developing this class and receiving funding to replace outdated hardware. We will also share our activities in attracting more students to be interested in PDC and related topics. © 2016 IEEE.

Riolli L.,California State University, Sacramento | Savicki V.,Western Oregon University
International Journal of Stress Management | Year: 2010

The effectiveness of different strategies of coping and the impact of coping diversity were tested under traumatic stress conditions. Participants were 632 U.S. soldiers stationed in Iraq (mean age = 27.7, 98% male). Results indicate that four of nine functional coping strategies (including some emotion-focused coping) as defined by the COPE scale were inversely related to psychological symptom, whereas five of six dysfunctional strategies were positively related. Overall, in comparison to the norm group, soldiers showed a depressed level of functional coping strategies. Hierarchical regression, used to control for demographics and coping strategy intercorrelations, indicated that positive reinterpretation, emotional social support, and humor were most strongly related to lower psychological symptoms, whereas venting emotions, denial, mental disengagement, behavioral disengagement, and alcohol and drug use were related to higher levels of psychological symptoms. Two indices of coping diversity were tested. The index more strongly related to higher psychological adjustment was the sum of deviations from the mean of specific coping strategies combined with the alignment of functional and dysfunctional strategy clusters. Implications for research and application were discussed. © 2010 American Psychological Association.

Timken G.L.,Western Oregon University | McNamee J.,Linfield College
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to gauge preservice physical education teachers' perspectives during one physical activity pedagogy course, teaching outdoor and adventure education. Teacher belief, occupational socialization and experiential learning theories overlaid this work. Over three years 57 students (37 males; 20 females) participated in the course. Each student wrote four reflections during their term of enrollment based on semistructured questions regarding their own participation, thoughts on K-12 students, and teaching and learning in physical education. Reflections were analyzed using constant comparative methods. Three main themes emerged from the data: 1) fear, risk and challenge, (subthemes of skill and motivation; self-awareness); 2) lifetime activity; and 3) teaching physical education (subthemes of K-12 students; curriculum). Implications for physical education teacher education suggest the inclusion of novel physical activities that elicit strong emotional responses due to challenges with perceived and/or actual risk as a viable method for inducing belief change. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Karr J.E.,Western Oregon University
Nutritional neuroscience | Year: 2011

With increasing awareness of the effects of nutrition on physical and mental health, researchers have begun to further investigate the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on health and the brain; however, these benefits remain unclear across different age groups. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current evidence on the cognitive effects of n-3 PUFA throughout the lifespan. An exhaustive review of the literature on the effects of n-3 PUFA on various aspects of cognition, across the lifespan, was conducted. The research suggests that n-3 PUFA positively affect pre-natal neurodevelopment; however, this cognitive-enhancing effect might diminish post-natally with maturation, as no research on child populations has clearly tied dietary n-3 PUFA to improved cognitive skills. Overall, few studies have examined the cognitive effects of n-3 PUFA through childhood, young adulthood, and middle age. At later ages, multiple studies found evidence suggesting that n-3 PUFA can protect against neurodegeneration and possibly reduce the chance of developing cognitive impairment. Age groups central to the lifespan require further investigation into the effects that n-3 PUFA might have on their cognitive skills. The research examining the extremities of the lifespan provides evidence that n-3 PUFA are essential for neurodevelopment and cognitive maintenance in older adulthood. Future research must develop more consistent methodologies, as variable dosages, supplementation periods, and cognitive measures across different studies have led to disparate results, making the evidence less comparable and difficult to synthesize.

Armstrong W.J.,Western Oregon University
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2014

Results: Correlations of HM:MMGp–p, HM:MMGCvT, HMCvT:MMGCvT, HMCvT:MMGp–p, were low (r = 0.34, 0.33, 0.09, and 0.12, respectively, p < 0.001); and correlations of HM:HMCvT, MMGCvT:MMGp–p, were moderate-to-high (r = 0.69 and 0.97, respectively, p < 0.001). Correlations for individuals ranged from 0.61 to 0.99 across comparisons. The time at which maximal intensities occurred reflected the transition from a predominant H-reflex to the onset of the M-wave and declining lag times were noted with increasing intensity.Conclusions: The intensity analysis provides insight into the frequency characteristics of the H-reflex and M-wave not seen in traditional analysis of the H-reflex. The intensity analysis may be a useful tool in studying individual variations and changes in the contraction velocities of skeletal muscle.Purpose: The relationship between mechanomyography (MMG) and electromyography (sEMG) during electrically evoked muscle contraction was examined using the von Tscharner “intensity analysis,” which describes the power of a non-stationary signal as a function of both frequency and time.Method: Data for 8 college-aged participants (3 males; 5 females) with measurable H-reflexes were analyzed. Recruitment curves for H-reflex (H), M-wave (M) using sEMG, and peak-to-peak MMG (MMGp–p) were elicited through incremental tibial nerve stimulation. The maximum peak-to-peak values for H and M for each sample were summed (HM); and maximum intensity values were measured for MMG, H, and M following the intensity analysis and computation of total intensity (MMGCvT, HCvT, MCvT). HCvT and MCvT were subsequently added together (HMCvT) for comparisons. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Karr J.E.,Western Oregon University | Grindstaff T.R.,Western Oregon University | Alexander J.E.,Western Oregon University
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology | Year: 2012

The cognitive influences of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) remain unclear throughout the life span. Dietary n-3 PUFA appear cognitively beneficial prenatally and neuroprotective at later age; however, researchers using supplementation designs have reported disparate findings across age groups. Few studies have examined the cognitive impact of n-3 PUFA during young adulthood. This study assessed the cognitive effects of fish oil supplementation at college age, hypothesizing benefits on affect, executive control, inhibition, and verbal learning and memory. College-aged participants were assigned to active (n = 20, 5 men; xage = 19.9, sage = 1.8) or placebo (n = 21, 7 men; xage = 20.4, sage = 1.6) treatments, receiving fish oil (480 mg DHA/720 mg EPA) or coconut oil, respectively. Both groups completed four weeks of supplementation. At baseline and posttreatment, the researchers administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; Lezak, 1995), Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT; Golden & Freshwater, 2002), Trail Making Test (TMT; Corrigan & Hinkeldey, 1987; Gaudino, Geisler, & Squires, 1995; Lezak, 1995), and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated no benefits of fish oil on the SCWT, RAVLT Stages 1 to 5, or PANAS. An interaction occurred between condition and time of measurement (i.e., baseline and posttreatment) on RAVLT Stages 6 and 7, and placebo significantly improved TMT performance over fish oil. The benefits of n-3 PUFA on RAVLT performance derived more from depreciated placebo performance than improved performance due to fish oil. The placebo gain on TMT performance likely derived from a learning effect. Together, these results present limited cognitive benefits of n-3 PUFA at college age; however, the treatment may have been subtherapeutic, with a larger sample needed to generalize these results. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Jeffrey Armstrong W.,Western Oregon University
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2011

The von Tscharner (2000) "intensity analysis" describes the power of a non-stationary signal as a function of both frequency and time. The present study applied a version of this intensity analysis that utilizes Morlet wavelets as a means of gaining insight into the application of this technique as alternative to power spectral analysis for the evaluation of postural control strategy during the single-legged stance and to examine the effects of fatigue. Ten subjects (gender balanced, age: 25±3years; height: 169.4±11.7cm; weight: 79.0±16.9kg) participated in two trials consisting of five 15-s dominant-leg stances. Three-uniaxial accelerometers were fixed to the surface of the dominant leg corresponding to VM, VL, SOL, and MMG was recorded at a sampling rate of 1000Hz. Signals were later analyzed using a variation of the von Tscharner intensity analysis consisting of a filter bank of 11 Morlet wavelets (range: 2.1-131.1Hz). Two Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT) separated by a 2-min rest were performed to introduce fatigue. Repeated measures ANOVAs showed significant effects for time, gender, trial, and wavelet (p<0.001) and significant interactions for muscle by wavelet, gender by trial, trial by wavelet, and gender by trial by wavelet (p<0.001). Peak total MMG intensity (mean±SD) was higher in males than females and higher following fatiguing exercise preWAnT (squared ms -2): 42.6±4.5 vs. 19.2±2.3; postWAnT (squared ms -2): 90.4±9.1 vs. 28.4±2.8. Peak total MMG intensity was compressed to the lower frequencies surrounding ∼12Hz, corresponding to what might be considered physiologic tremor, and a lower peak at ∼42Hz was most prominent in SOL. The intensity analysis is a useful tool in exploring postural control and in studying the effects of fatigue on the mechanical properties of skeletal muscle. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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