Monmouth, OR, United States
Monmouth, OR, United States

Western Oregon University is a public liberal arts college located in Monmouth, Oregon, United States. It was originally established in 1856 by Oregon pioneers as Monmouth University. Subsequent names include Oregon Normal School, Oregon College of Education, and Western Oregon State College. Western Oregon University incorporates both the College of Education and the College of Liberal Arts and science. Enrollment is approximately 6,200 students. Wikipedia.


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Riolli L.,California State University, Sacramento | Savicki V.,Western Oregon University
International Journal of Stress Management | Year: 2010

The effectiveness of different strategies of coping and the impact of coping diversity were tested under traumatic stress conditions. Participants were 632 U.S. soldiers stationed in Iraq (mean age = 27.7, 98% male). Results indicate that four of nine functional coping strategies (including some emotion-focused coping) as defined by the COPE scale were inversely related to psychological symptom, whereas five of six dysfunctional strategies were positively related. Overall, in comparison to the norm group, soldiers showed a depressed level of functional coping strategies. Hierarchical regression, used to control for demographics and coping strategy intercorrelations, indicated that positive reinterpretation, emotional social support, and humor were most strongly related to lower psychological symptoms, whereas venting emotions, denial, mental disengagement, behavioral disengagement, and alcohol and drug use were related to higher levels of psychological symptoms. Two indices of coping diversity were tested. The index more strongly related to higher psychological adjustment was the sum of deviations from the mean of specific coping strategies combined with the alignment of functional and dysfunctional strategy clusters. Implications for research and application were discussed. © 2010 American Psychological Association.


Timken G.L.,Western Oregon University | McNamee J.,Linfield College
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to gauge preservice physical education teachers' perspectives during one physical activity pedagogy course, teaching outdoor and adventure education. Teacher belief, occupational socialization and experiential learning theories overlaid this work. Over three years 57 students (37 males; 20 females) participated in the course. Each student wrote four reflections during their term of enrollment based on semistructured questions regarding their own participation, thoughts on K-12 students, and teaching and learning in physical education. Reflections were analyzed using constant comparative methods. Three main themes emerged from the data: 1) fear, risk and challenge, (subthemes of skill and motivation; self-awareness); 2) lifetime activity; and 3) teaching physical education (subthemes of K-12 students; curriculum). Implications for physical education teacher education suggest the inclusion of novel physical activities that elicit strong emotional responses due to challenges with perceived and/or actual risk as a viable method for inducing belief change. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Lopez-Cevallos D.F.,Western Oregon University | Chi C.,Oregon State University
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2010

Background. There are few studies that have analyzed the context of health care utilization, particularly in Latin America. This study examines the context of utilization of health services in Ecuador; focusing on the relationship between provision of services and use of both preventive and curative services. Methods. This study is cross-sectional and analyzes data from the 2004 National Demographic and Maternal & Child Health dataset. Provider variables come from the Ecuadorian System of Social Indicators (SIISE). Global Moran's I statistic is used to assess spatial autocorrelation of the provider variables. Multilevel modeling is used for the simultaneous analysis of provision of services at the province-level with use of services at the individual level. Results. Spatial analysis indicates no significant differences in the density of health care providers among Ecuadorian provinces. After adjusting for various predisposing, enabling, need factors and interaction terms, density of public practice health personnel was positively associated with use of preventive care, particularly among rural households. On the other hand, density of private practice physicians was positively associated with use of curative care, particularly among urban households. Conclusions. There are significant public/private, urban/rural gaps in provision of services in Ecuador; which in turn affect people's use of services. It is necessary to strengthen the public health care delivery system (which includes addressing distribution of health workers) and national health information systems. These efforts could improve access to health care, and inform the civil society and policymakers on the advances of health care reform. © 2010 Lápez-Cevallos and Chi; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Armstrong W.J.,Western Oregon University | Grinnell D.C.,Hope College | Warren G.S.,Hope College
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2010

To determine the effectiveness of a single, 1-minute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a viable warm-up activity, 90 subjects (30 men; 60 women, mean age = 19 ± 1 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to either a nonvibration control group or 1 of 8 WBV treatments (4 frequencies × 2 AMplitudes). Subjects stood with the feet shoulder width apart and the knees flexed 10° on a Next Generation Power Plate for 1 minute with the frequency (30, 35, 40, or 50 Hz) and amplitude (2-4 or 4-6 mm) settings at the assigned levels. Before, 1, 5,10,15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after the WBV or control treatment, subjects performed a series of countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs) measured using a Vertec™ vertical jump tester. Comparisons were made of changes in the countermovement vertical jump height (CMJH) overtime and between groups, frequencies, and amplitudes using repeated measures analysis of variance (α ≤ 0.05). There were significant differences in CMJH over time (p = 0.008); however, these were similar for all groups, frequencies, and amplitudes (p > 0.88). Some athletes may benefit from using WBV as a warm-up activity, if the timing of WBV is optimized. The effect of WBV on performance is likely variable and minimal, with a small window of effectiveness. Gender differences were not examined, and the optimal duration, intensity, and postural position are still unclear and warrant further study. © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Karr J.E.,Western Oregon University
Nutritional neuroscience | Year: 2011

With increasing awareness of the effects of nutrition on physical and mental health, researchers have begun to further investigate the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on health and the brain; however, these benefits remain unclear across different age groups. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current evidence on the cognitive effects of n-3 PUFA throughout the lifespan. An exhaustive review of the literature on the effects of n-3 PUFA on various aspects of cognition, across the lifespan, was conducted. The research suggests that n-3 PUFA positively affect pre-natal neurodevelopment; however, this cognitive-enhancing effect might diminish post-natally with maturation, as no research on child populations has clearly tied dietary n-3 PUFA to improved cognitive skills. Overall, few studies have examined the cognitive effects of n-3 PUFA through childhood, young adulthood, and middle age. At later ages, multiple studies found evidence suggesting that n-3 PUFA can protect against neurodegeneration and possibly reduce the chance of developing cognitive impairment. Age groups central to the lifespan require further investigation into the effects that n-3 PUFA might have on their cognitive skills. The research examining the extremities of the lifespan provides evidence that n-3 PUFA are essential for neurodevelopment and cognitive maintenance in older adulthood. Future research must develop more consistent methodologies, as variable dosages, supplementation periods, and cognitive measures across different studies have led to disparate results, making the evidence less comparable and difficult to synthesize.


Liu J.,Western Oregon University
Proceedings - 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security and 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems, HPCC-CSS-ICESS 2015 | Year: 2015

For all sound reasons, more and more organizations are deploying their databases to the cloud as a viable option as part of their nowadays system architecture. Since we cannot be sure that our database access would never be compromised, data encryptions of various forms and levels have become the utmost techniques used to prevent malicious parties, internal or external, from inspecting an organization's data, in transit or at rest. However, in this short paper we will show that, despite the fact that encryptions can be very effective in hiding information contained in individual records, they may be rendered ineffective in protecting business secrets embedded in aggregated date, such as the number of customers. We will also propose simple and effective counter measures to prevent leakages of such business secrets. © 2015 IEEE.


Armstrong W.J.,Western Oregon University
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2014

Results: Correlations of HM:MMGp–p, HM:MMGCvT, HMCvT:MMGCvT, HMCvT:MMGp–p, were low (r = 0.34, 0.33, 0.09, and 0.12, respectively, p < 0.001); and correlations of HM:HMCvT, MMGCvT:MMGp–p, were moderate-to-high (r = 0.69 and 0.97, respectively, p < 0.001). Correlations for individuals ranged from 0.61 to 0.99 across comparisons. The time at which maximal intensities occurred reflected the transition from a predominant H-reflex to the onset of the M-wave and declining lag times were noted with increasing intensity.Conclusions: The intensity analysis provides insight into the frequency characteristics of the H-reflex and M-wave not seen in traditional analysis of the H-reflex. The intensity analysis may be a useful tool in studying individual variations and changes in the contraction velocities of skeletal muscle.Purpose: The relationship between mechanomyography (MMG) and electromyography (sEMG) during electrically evoked muscle contraction was examined using the von Tscharner “intensity analysis,” which describes the power of a non-stationary signal as a function of both frequency and time.Method: Data for 8 college-aged participants (3 males; 5 females) with measurable H-reflexes were analyzed. Recruitment curves for H-reflex (H), M-wave (M) using sEMG, and peak-to-peak MMG (MMGp–p) were elicited through incremental tibial nerve stimulation. The maximum peak-to-peak values for H and M for each sample were summed (HM); and maximum intensity values were measured for MMG, H, and M following the intensity analysis and computation of total intensity (MMGCvT, HCvT, MCvT). HCvT and MCvT were subsequently added together (HMCvT) for comparisons. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Karr J.E.,Western Oregon University | Grindstaff T.R.,Western Oregon University | Alexander J.E.,Western Oregon University
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology | Year: 2012

The cognitive influences of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) remain unclear throughout the life span. Dietary n-3 PUFA appear cognitively beneficial prenatally and neuroprotective at later age; however, researchers using supplementation designs have reported disparate findings across age groups. Few studies have examined the cognitive impact of n-3 PUFA during young adulthood. This study assessed the cognitive effects of fish oil supplementation at college age, hypothesizing benefits on affect, executive control, inhibition, and verbal learning and memory. College-aged participants were assigned to active (n = 20, 5 men; xage = 19.9, sage = 1.8) or placebo (n = 21, 7 men; xage = 20.4, sage = 1.6) treatments, receiving fish oil (480 mg DHA/720 mg EPA) or coconut oil, respectively. Both groups completed four weeks of supplementation. At baseline and posttreatment, the researchers administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; Lezak, 1995), Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT; Golden & Freshwater, 2002), Trail Making Test (TMT; Corrigan & Hinkeldey, 1987; Gaudino, Geisler, & Squires, 1995; Lezak, 1995), and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated no benefits of fish oil on the SCWT, RAVLT Stages 1 to 5, or PANAS. An interaction occurred between condition and time of measurement (i.e., baseline and posttreatment) on RAVLT Stages 6 and 7, and placebo significantly improved TMT performance over fish oil. The benefits of n-3 PUFA on RAVLT performance derived more from depreciated placebo performance than improved performance due to fish oil. The placebo gain on TMT performance likely derived from a learning effect. Together, these results present limited cognitive benefits of n-3 PUFA at college age; however, the treatment may have been subtherapeutic, with a larger sample needed to generalize these results. © 2012 American Psychological Association.


Brookbank E.,Western Oregon University
Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship | Year: 2015

The majority of college students use social media of some kind, and academic libraries are increasingly using social media to reach them. Although studies have analyzed which platforms academic libraries most commonly use and case studies have provided examples of how libraries use specific platforms, there are few examinations of the usage habits and preferences of local user populations to guide library strategy in this space. This article reports on the results of a survey in which students at one university were asked about their personal use of social media and their preferences for how the library uses social media. © 2015, Published with license by Taylor & Francis.


Jeffrey Armstrong W.,Western Oregon University
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2011

The von Tscharner (2000) "intensity analysis" describes the power of a non-stationary signal as a function of both frequency and time. The present study applied a version of this intensity analysis that utilizes Morlet wavelets as a means of gaining insight into the application of this technique as alternative to power spectral analysis for the evaluation of postural control strategy during the single-legged stance and to examine the effects of fatigue. Ten subjects (gender balanced, age: 25±3years; height: 169.4±11.7cm; weight: 79.0±16.9kg) participated in two trials consisting of five 15-s dominant-leg stances. Three-uniaxial accelerometers were fixed to the surface of the dominant leg corresponding to VM, VL, SOL, and MMG was recorded at a sampling rate of 1000Hz. Signals were later analyzed using a variation of the von Tscharner intensity analysis consisting of a filter bank of 11 Morlet wavelets (range: 2.1-131.1Hz). Two Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT) separated by a 2-min rest were performed to introduce fatigue. Repeated measures ANOVAs showed significant effects for time, gender, trial, and wavelet (p<0.001) and significant interactions for muscle by wavelet, gender by trial, trial by wavelet, and gender by trial by wavelet (p<0.001). Peak total MMG intensity (mean±SD) was higher in males than females and higher following fatiguing exercise preWAnT (squared ms -2): 42.6±4.5 vs. 19.2±2.3; postWAnT (squared ms -2): 90.4±9.1 vs. 28.4±2.8. Peak total MMG intensity was compressed to the lower frequencies surrounding ∼12Hz, corresponding to what might be considered physiologic tremor, and a lower peak at ∼42Hz was most prominent in SOL. The intensity analysis is a useful tool in exploring postural control and in studying the effects of fatigue on the mechanical properties of skeletal muscle. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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