Western Michigan University is a public research university located in Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States. The university was established in 1903 by Dwight B. Waldo, and as of the Fall 2014 semester, its enrollment is 23,914.WMU has one of the largest aviation programs in the United States, and it is the site of the annual International Congress on Medieval Studies. The university's athletic teams compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and are collectively known as the Western Michigan Broncos. They compete in the Mid-American Conference for most sports. Wikipedia.
Lee H.,Western Michigan University
Energy | Year: 2013
The formulation of the classical basic equations for a thermoelectric cooler from the Thomson relations to the non-linear differential equation with Onsager's reciprocal relations was performed to basically study the Thomson effect in conjunction with the ideal equation. The ideal equation is obtained when the Thomson coefficient is assumed to be zero. The exact solutions derived for a commercial thermoelectric cooler module provided the temperature distributions including the Thomson effect. The positive Thomson coefficient led to a slight improvement on the performance of the thermoelectric device while the negative Thomson coefficient led to a slight declination of the performance. The comparison between the exact solutions and the ideal equation on the cooling power and the coefficient of performance over a wide range of temperature differences showed close agreement. In conclusion, the Thomson effect is small for typical commercial thermoelectric coolers and the ideal equation effectively predicts the performance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Mo Y.,Western Michigan University
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2010
As a textbook prototype for the introduction of steric hindrance in organic chemistry, the elucidation of the butane rotation barriers is fundamental for structural theory, and requires a consistent theoretical model to differentiate the steric and electronic effects. Here we employed the BLW method to probe the electronic (hyperconjugative) interactions. Results show that although there are stronger hyperconjugative interactions in the staggered anti and gauche conformers than the eclipsed structures, the energy curve and barriers are dominated by the steric repulsion. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Lee H.,Western Michigan University
Applied Energy | Year: 2013
The optimum design of thermoelectric devices (thermoelectric generator and cooler) in connection with heat sinks was developed using dimensional analysis. New dimensionless groups were properly defined to represent important parameters of the thermoelectric devices. Particularly, use of the convection conductance of a fluid in the denominators of the dimensionless parameters was critically important, which leads to a new optimum design. This allows us to determine either the optimal number of thermocouples or the optimal thermal conductance (the geometric ratio of footprint of leg to leg length). It is stated from the present dimensional analysis that, if two fluid temperatures on the heat sinks are given, an optimum design always exists and can be found with the feasible mechanical constraints. The optimum design includes the optimum parameters such as efficiency, power, current, geometry or number of thermocouples, and thermal resistances of heat sinks. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Jellies J.,Western Michigan University
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2014
Medicinal leeches are aquatic predators that inhabit surface waters during daylight and also leave the water where they might be exposed to less screened light. Whereas the leech visual system has been shown to respond to visible light, leeches in the genus Hirudo do not appear to be as negatively phototactic as one might expect in order to avoid potential ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage. I used high intensity light emitting diodes to test the hypothesis that leeches could detect and specifically avoid near UVR (395-405 nm). Groups of unfed juvenile leeches exhibited a robust negative phototaxis to UVR, but had no behavioral response to blue or red and only a slight negative phototaxis to green and white light. Individual leeches also exhibited a vigorous negative phototaxis to UVR; responding in 100% of trials compared with modest negative responses to visible light (responding in ~8% of the trials). The responses in fed and unfed leeches were comparable for UVR stimuli. The responses depended upon the stimulus site: leeches shortened away from UV light to the head, and extended away from UV light to the tail. Electrophysiological nerve recordings showed that the cephalic eyes responded vigorously to UVR. Additionally, individual leech photoreceptors also showed strong responses to UVR, and a higher-order neuron associated with shortening and rapid behavioral responses, the S-cell, was activated by UVR, on both the head and tail. These results demonstrate that the leech can detect UVR and is able to discriminate behaviorally between UVR and visible light. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Ackerson K.,Western Michigan University
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2012
Cervical cancer is preventable, in part, by routine Papanicolaou (Pap) testing, but some women avoid routine screening. African American women have the greatest mortality among all groups of women in the United States. Personal reasons have been found to contribute to screening avoidance behavior, such as a history of sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Fifteen African American women with a trauma history participated in personal interviews. The Interaction Model of Client Behavior was employed for exploring the women's social influence, previous health care experience, cognitive appraisal, affective response, and motivation associated with routine Pap testing. Study findings suggest that providers need to assess and provide accurate information about Pap testing and cervical cancer to increase patients' knowledge. Personally reflecting on one's approach to conducting a woman's gynecologic exam (and how it is performed) might prevent triggering unwanted memories, making that visit a positive experience and facilitating repeat screening behavior. © 2012 The Author(s).