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Bowling Green, KY, United States

Western Kentucky University is a public university in Bowling Green, Kentucky, United States. It was founded by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1906, though its roots reach back a quarter-century earlier. In the fall 2011 semester, enrollment was approximately 21,000.The subject of heavy construction since the late 1990s, the main campus sits atop a hill with a commanding view of the Barren River valley. The campus flows from the top of College Heights, also known as The Hill, down its north, south and west faces. WKU also operates a satellite campus in Bowling Green and regional campuses in Glasgow, Elizabethtown-Fort Knox and Owensboro. Wikipedia.

Mienaltowski A.,Western Kentucky University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2011

Everyday problem solving involves examining the solutions that individuals generate when faced with problems that take place in their everyday experiences. Problems can range from medication adherence and meal preparation to disagreeing with a physician over a recommended medical procedure or compromising with extended family members over where to host Thanksgiving dinner. Across the life span, research has demonstrated divergent patterns of change in performance based on the type of everyday problems used as well as based on the way that problem-solving efficacy is operationally defined. Advancing age is associated with worsening performance when tasks involve single-solution or fluency-based definitions of effectiveness. However, when efficacy is defined in terms of the diversity of strategies used, as well as by the social and emotional impact of solution choice on the individual, performance is remarkably stable and sometimes even improves in the latter half of life. This article discusses how both of these approaches to everyday problem solving inform research on the influence that aging has on everyday functioning. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences..

Novak E.,Western Kentucky University
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the effects of a storyline on learners' factual, conceptual and application knowledge with the use of a simulation for teaching introductory statistical skills and to (2) explore students' subjective enjoyment of various learning activities often used in statistics education. In order to conduct the study, two versions of a simulation were developed that differed in the presence or absence of a storyline attribute. Sixty-four graduate students were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention conditions. Both intervention groups demonstrated significantly higher learning gains after interacting with the simulation. Particularly, both simulation-based interventions had a positive significant effect on the acquisition of application knowledge and skills. However, no significant differences between the intervention groups on any learning outcome explored in the study were found. Results also showed that students rated the simulation used in the study as a more enjoyable learning activity in comparison to reading a textbook, lecture or teamwork. Students from the simulation without a storyline intervention reported higher enjoyment than the other intervention group. Implications of the findings for understanding the instructional benefits and shortcomings of embedding a storyline in digital learning content are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Kowalski R.M.,Clemson University | Giumetti G.W.,Quinnipiac University | Schroeder A.N.,Western Kentucky University | Lattanner M.R.,Duke University
Psychological Bulletin | Year: 2014

Although the Internet has transformed the way our world operates, it has also served as a venue for cyberbullying, a serious form of misbehavior among youth. With many of today's youth experiencing acts of cyberbullying, a growing body of literature has begun to document the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of this behavior, but the literature is highly fragmented and lacks theoretical focus. Therefore, our purpose in the present article is to provide a critical review of the existing cyberbullying research. The general aggression model is proposed as a useful theoretical framework from which to understand this phenomenon. Additionally, results from a meta-analytic review are presented to highlight the size of the relationships between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, as well as relationships between cyberbullying and other meaningful behavioral and psychological variables. Mixed effects meta-analysis results indicate that among the strongest associations with cyberbullying perpetration were normative beliefs about aggression and moral disengagement, and the strongest associations with cyberbullying victimization were stress and suicidal ideation. Several methodological and sample characteristics served as moderators of these relationships. Limitations of the meta-analysis include issues dealing with causality or directionality of these associations as well as generalizability for those meta-analytic estimates that are based on smaller sets of studies (k 5). Finally, the present results uncover important areas for future research. We provide a relevant agenda, including the need for understanding the incremental impact of cyberbullying (over and above traditional bullying) on key behavioral and psychological outcomes. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Ashley N.T.,Western Kentucky University | Weil Z.M.,Ohio State University | Nelson R.J.,Ohio State University
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics | Year: 2012

Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon that operates during severe perturbations of homeostasis, such as Infection, injury, and exposure to contaminants, and is triggered by innate immune receptors that recognize pathogens and damaged cells. Among vertebrates, the Inflammatory cascade is a complex network of immunological, physiological, and behavioral events that are coordinated by cytokines, immune signaling molecules. Although the molecular basis of Inflammation is well studied, its role in mediating the outcome of host-parasite interactions has received minimal attention by ecologists. This review provides a synopsis of vertebrate Inflammation, its life-history modulation, and its effects upon host-pathogen dynamics as well as host-commensal microbiota interactions in the gut. What emerges is evidence for phenotypic plasticity of Inflammatory responses despite the apparently invariant and redundant nature of the immunoregulatory networks that regulate them. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Brausch A.M.,Western Kentucky University
Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy | Year: 2012

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a concern in the adolescent population given its relationship to suicidal behavior, pointing to the serious need for adequate treatments for this high-risk population. This review examined empirical studies that evaluated treatments for NSSI among adolescents, and evaluated how the components of each treatment address common underlying and concurrent factors of NSSI. Among the available treatments, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions that integrate a problem-solving component and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have received the most empirical attention. However, studies examining the utility of cognitive-behavioral problem-solving interventions for adolescents, and randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of DBT are lacking. Overall, CBT-based treatments improved underlying or maintaining factors of NSSI, such as depression, hopelessness, and problem-solving skills. DBT was effective for reducing hospitalizations. No existing studies evaluated treatment effectiveness for NSSI exclusively, and few studies used a purely adolescent sample. This review highlights the gap in knowledge regarding adolescent NSSI-there is no strong evidence for the efficacy of any specific treatment. © 2012 Springer Publishing Company.

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