Western Fishes

Ashland, OR, United States

Western Fishes

Ashland, OR, United States
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Goodman D.H.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Reid S.B.,Western Fishes | Reyes R.C.,Bureau of Reclamation | Wu B.J.,Bureau of Reclamation | Bridges B.B.,Bureau of Reclamation
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2017

We investigated the guidance efficiency of fish screens for the protection of emigrating Pacific Lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus and Western River Lamprey (also known as River Lamprey) Lampetra ayresii in a series of experimental trials. All trials were conducted at the Tracy Fish Collection Facility, located in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Estuary at the entrance to one of the world’s largest surface water diversions. Using 1,200 lamprey macrophthalmia, we tested for the effect of screen type, time of day, and channel water velocity to guide their swimming behavior to avoid entrainment. We found overwhelming evidence for an effect of screen type on efficiency, whereby all lampreys were successfully guided to a holding tank when a vertical traveling screen was used. This was likely due to the small pore size of the screen relative to lamprey sizes. In contrast, the efficiency of louvers, a behavioral screen designed for salmonids, varied by the interaction of time of day and channel velocity. During nighttime, when lamprey typically emigrate, louver guidance efficiency ranged from 21% (95% CI, 14–30%) to 24% (95% CI, 16–34%). These results were applied to estimate the probability for salvage of lamprey macrophthalmia at the Tracy Fish Collection Facility, which includes a two-stage fish screen design. Between 1957 and 2014, we estimated that 94–96% of the lampreys that were entrained in the export flows were lost and not returned to the delta. However, the probability for fish loss was reduced in 2014 when the secondary louver was replaced with a vertical traveling screen. Our results suggest that lamprey macrophthalmia entrainment into the canals will be eliminated at the Tracy Fish Collection Facility if the primary screen is converted to vertical traveling screen. Surface water diversions may represent a substantial threat to regional metapopulations of anadromous lamprey species worldwide, and screening approaches applied to other fish species such as salmonids may not be protective of lampreys. Received June 7, 2016; accepted August 23, 2016Published online December 20, 2016 © 2017, © American Fisheries Society 2017.


Goodman D.H.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Reid S.B.,Western Fishes
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2017

We evaluated the behavior and capabilities of upstream migrating adult Pacific Lamprey using a series of experimental trials in relation to existing and novel fishway designs using Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) telemetry. Five treatments were evaluated with PIT telemetry of 164 upstream migrating Pacific Lamprey. Experimental treatments included an existing pool and weir fishway, two in-situ modifications of the existing fishway and two treatments designed to provide lamprey-specific routes. The probability of passage success through trials (10 m distance and 1 m elevation gain over 1 night) was related to treatment. The existing pool and weir fishway provided the lowest predicted passage efficiency at 0.44 (95% CI 0.29–0.59), while tube and culvert treatments had perfect efficiencies. For individuals that successfully ascended trials, passage time was also related to treatment. Lampreys ascending the pool and weir structure had the longest predicted passage time at 5.2 h (95% CI 3.96–6.46) while individuals in the tube were the fastest, with a 20-fold reduction in migration time at 0.26 h (95% CI 0.21–0.30). Lamprey ranged from 52 to 66 cm TL, however length did not influence passage success or migration time. Over 200 h of night-time observations were used to improve our understanding of how lampreys pass barriers and where they encounter particular challenges. Our results and observations of lamprey migration behavior confirm that pool and weir fishways and design features common to other fishways types can pose a substantial obstacle to Pacific Lamprey migration. We provide a set of recommendations for behavioral considerations and design features, both beneficial and those that should be avoided at fishways. This study identifies a variety of solutions applicable to a range of obstacles that, if implemented, should significantly improve the opportunity for Pacific Lamprey to pass existing and future man-made structures. © 2017


Goodman D.H.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Reid S.B.,Western Fishes | Som N.A.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Poytress W.R.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2015

We investigated emigration timing of juvenile Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) over a 10-year period in the Sacramento River, California, USA. Emigration was punctuated with 90% of macrophthalmia in daily catches of at least 50 individuals. Macrophthalmia were observed primarily between November and May, with among-year variation in median emigration date over four times that of sympatric anadromous salmon. Our best model associating catch and environmental factors included days from rain event, temperature, and streamflow. We found strong evidence for an association of catch with days from rain events, a surrogate for streamflow, with 93% of emigrants caught during an event and the two subsequent days. Emigration was more likely during nighttime during subdaily sampling after accounting for the effects of factors significantly associated with daily catch. These results emphasize the importance of natural variation in streamflow regimes and provide insight for management practices that would benefit emigrating lampreys, such as synchronizing dam releases with winter and spring storms to reduce migration time, timing diversions to avoid entrainment during emigration windows, and ensuring streamflows are sufficient to reach the ocean, thereby avoiding mass stranding events. © 2015, National Research Council of Canada. All rights reserved.


Reid S.B.,Western Fishes | Boguski D.A.,University of Manitoba | Goodman D.H.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Docker M.F.,University of Manitoba
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

The Pacific Brook Lamprey, Lampetra pacifica Vladykov, 1973 was described from the lower Columbia River Basin near Portland, Oregon. Subsequently, L. pacifica has generally been treated as a junior synonym of the Western Brook Lamprey, L. richardsoni Vladykov and Follett, 1965, a species described from the Fraser River Drainage east of Vancouver, British Columbia. We reexamine the available morphological data used by previous authors (trunk myomere counts), report on recent collections from the Columbia Basin, and reinterpret the trunk myomere data in the context of recent genetic sampling from the same populations. Populations of L. pacifica are distinguished from those of L. richardsoni by trunk myomere counts of 53-60 (means <58) versus 57-67 (means >59), respectively, and by genetic sequence divergence (cyt b) of 2.85 to 3.20%. We find no support for placing L. pacifica in the synonymy of L. richardsoni and recognize L. pacifica as a valid species. However, we recognize that there is considerable unresolved diversity in the western North American lampreys and recommend restriction of L. pacifica to the Columbia Basin, suggesting that unresolved populations of Lampetra brook (non-parasitic) lampreys outside the basin with mean trunk myomere counts below 59 be referred to as L. cf. pacifica, until further systematic information is available. Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press.


Reid S.B.,Western Fishes | Goodman D.H.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2016

Lampreys are extremely efficient anguilliform swimmers, well–designed for long–distance travel, although they are frequently characterized as poor swimmers when compared to salmonids. We examine free–swimming adult Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus, in a raceway environment to approximate swim speeds and behaviors that may occur in the natural environment. Lampreys (mean Body Length 59.2 ± 3.0 cm, range 50–66 cm BL) traveled upstream at a mean groundspeed of 0.34 ± 0.188 BL/s (n=126, range 0.01–0.79 BL/s). Swimming activity was strongly nocturnal. Observed speeds in the lower range may have been the result of swimming in midwater against faster currents, indirect paths or rest periods. Lampreys generally took advantage of lower near–bottom current velocities by swimming within 6 cm of the bottom, where currents were substantially lower. Equivalent swim speeds, without currents, would be 0.49 ± 0.190 BL/s (range 0.17–0.96 BL/s). These speeds are in the high range of daily travel rates encountered in tagging studies of both Pacific Lamprey and Atlantic Sea Lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, but compare well when migration is limited to hours of darkness or tracking was continuous. Such rates suggest that, travelling only at night, lampreys would cover 1,000 km upriver in under four months. It is crucial that managers and designers incorporate the swimming capability, near–bottom association, utilization of boundary flow conditions, and nocturnal behavior of lampreys into their activities if we are to effectively manage in-stream facilities and conserve these key anadromous species. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Boguski D.A.,University of Manitoba | Reid S.B.,Western Fishes | Goodman D.H.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Docker M.F.,University of Manitoba
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2012

Phylogenetic structure of four Lampetra species from the Pacific drainage of North America (western brook lamprey Lampetra richardsoni, Pacific brook lamprey Lampetra pacifica, river lamprey Lampetra ayresii and Kern brook lamprey Lampetra hubbsi) and unidentified Lampetra specimens (referred to as Lampetra sp.) from 36 locations was estimated using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inferences did not correspond with any taxonomic scheme proposed to date. Rather, although L. richardsoni (from Alaska to California) and L. ayresii (from British Columbia to California) together constituted a well-supported clade distinct from several genetically divergent Lampetra populations in Oregon and California, these two species were not reciprocally monophyletic. The genetically divergent populations included L. pacifica (from the Columbia River basin) and L. hubbsi (from the Kern River basin) and four Lampetra sp. populations in Oregon (Siuslaw River and Fourmile Creek) and California (Kelsey and Mark West Creeks). These four Lampetra sp. populations showed genetic divergence between 2·3 and 5·7% from any known species (and up to 8·0% from each other), and may represent morphologically cryptic and thus previously undescribed species. A fifth population (from Paynes Creek, California) may represent a range extension of L. hubbsi into the Upper Sacramento River. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.


Reid S.B.,Western Fishes | Goodman D.H.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2016

Abstract: Pacific Lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus have been overlooked historically in fish surveys using standard salmonid methods along the Pacific coast of North America. As a result, little is known of even their broader distribution patterns at the drainage level. Over the last 2 decades, the species has shown a northward range contraction of over 900 km, and at this time the southernmost population is the Big Sur River in California. This study evaluates the hypothesis that Pacific Lampreys do not typically utilize relatively small coastal drainages (<100 km2). We examined historical Pacific Lamprey records throughout California and surveyed 349 current sites in 102 coastal drainages along the California coastline and into Baja California. Within their currently occupied range (north of Big Sur), Pacific Lampreys were found in all drainages >100 km2, but in only 3 of 29 drainages <50 km2, and they were absent in all drainages <25 km2. All historical records are from drainages >50 km2, and primarily from larger drainages in southern California. Our results will support greater exploration of the ecological roles of lampreys in coastal streams, where they act as importers of marine nutrients, substrate engineers and filter feeders, as well as providing a rich prey base for many species. This paper also provides resource managers with an understanding of where Pacific Lampreys are likely to be found and where they were probably not a natural component of the fish fauna, allowing prioritization of conservation actions and more effective use of resources. Received December 3, 2015; accepted February 22, 2016 Published online June 15, 2016 © American Fisheries Society 2016.


Spice E.K.,University of Manitoba | Goodman D.H.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Reid S.B.,Western Fishes | Docker M.F.,University of Manitoba
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

Most species with lengthy migrations display some degree of natal homing; some (e.g. migratory birds and anadromous salmonids) show spectacular feats of homing. However, studies of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) indicate that this anadromous species locates spawning habitat based on pheromonal cues from larvae rather than through philopatry. Previous genetic studies in the anadromous Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) have both supported and rejected the hypothesis of natal homing. To resolve this, we used nine microsatellite loci to examine the population structure in 965 Pacific lamprey from 20 locations from central British Columbia to southern California and supplemented this analysis with mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on a subset of 530 lamprey. Microsatellite analysis revealed (i) relatively low but often statistically significant genetic differentiation among locations (97% pairwise FST values were <0.04 but 73.7% were significant); and (ii) weak but significant isolation by distance (r2 = 0.0565, P = 0.0450) but no geographic clustering of samples. The few moderate FST values involved comparisons with sites that were geographically distant or far upstream. The mtDNA analysis-although providing less resolution among sites (only 4.7%FST values were significant)-was broadly consistent with the microsatellite results: (i) the southernmost site and some sites tributary to the Salish Sea were genetically distinct; and (ii) southern sites showed higher haplotype and private haplotype richness. These results are inconsistent with philopatry, suggesting that anadromous lampreys are unusual among species with long migrations, but suggest that limited dispersal at sea precludes panmixia in this species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Baumsteiger J.,University of California at Merced | Kinziger A.P.,Humboldt State University | Reid S.B.,Western Fishes | Aguilar A.,University of California at Merced | Aguilar A.,California State University, Los Angeles
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2014

Species ranges that span different geographic landscapes frequently contain cryptic species- or population-level structure. Identifying these possible diversification factors can often be accomplished under a comparative phylogeographic framework. However, comparisons suffer if previous studies are limited to a particular group or habitat type. In California, a complex landscape has led to several phylogeographic breaks, primarily in terrestrial species. However, two sister taxa of freshwater fish, riffle sculpin (Cottus gulosus) and Pit sculpin (Cottus pitensis), display ranges based on morphological identifications that do not coincide with these breaks. Using a comprehensive sampling and nuclear, mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we hypothesized that proposed species ranges are erroneous based on potential hybridization/gene flow between species. Results identified a phylogeographic signature consistent with this hypothesis, with breaks at the Coast Range Mountains and Sacramento/San Joaquin River confluence. Coastal locations of C. gulosus represent a unique lineage, and 'true' C. gulosus were limited to the San Joaquin basin, both regions under strong anthropogenic influence and potential conservation targets. C. pitensis limits extended historically throughout the Sacramento/Pit River basin but currently are restricted to the Pit River. Interestingly, locations in the Sacramento River contained low levels of ancestral hybridization and gene flow from C. gulosus but now appear to be a distinct population. The remaining population structure was strongly correlated with Sierra Nevada presence (high) or absence (low). This study stresses the importance of testing phylogeographic breaks across multiple taxa/habitats before conservation decisions are made, but also the potential impact of different geographic landscapes on evolutionary diversification. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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