Western Fisheries Research Center

Newport, OR, United States

Western Fisheries Research Center

Newport, OR, United States
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Sanders G.E.,University of Washington | Sanders G.E.,Western Fisheries Research Center
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science | Year: 2011

Appropriate cleaning and disinfection procedures in zebrafish (Danio rerio) laboratories are crucial in preventing the spread of aquatic animal pathogens and minimizing the build-up of waste products and biologic matter. The procedures selected should accomplish these goals and incorporate the individual needs of various laboratories. In this study of a single zebrafish facility, we assessed the efficacy of 2 different cleaning and disinfection procedures for nets, tanks, and lids. ATP levels were used as a surrogate biomarker for microbial burden. We measured the number of relative light units (RLU), as an expression of the amount of ATP present, on items before and after disinfection and calculated the percentage reduction. We compared daily replacement of a commercial net disinfection product in J lab with weekly replacement in H lab and found a 96.6% reduction in RLU in H lab and a 91.2% reduction in J lab. These results indicate that either replacement schedule is effective. Evaluation of tanks and lids soaked in a bleach disinfection bath for 30 or 60 min revealed a 99.7% reduction in RLU at 30 min compared with 97.1% at 60 min. Therefore a 30-min soak in a bleach bath achieved a similar level of disinfection as did a 60-min soak. The current results demonstrate that these cleaning and disinfection methods are efficacious. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

Wargo A.R.,Western Fisheries Research Center | Wargo A.R.,University of Washington | Kurath G.,Western Fisheries Research Center
Journal of Virology | Year: 2011

The relationship between pathogen fitness and virulence is typically examined by quantifying only one or two pathogen fitness traits. More specifically, it is regularly assumed that within-host replication, as a precursor to transmission, is the driving force behind virulence. In reality, many traits contribute to pathogen fitness, and each trait could drive the evolution of virulence in different ways. Here, we independently quantified four viral infection cycle traits, namely, host entry, within-host replication, within-host coinfection fitness, and shedding, in vivo, in the vertebrate virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). We examined how each of these stages of the viral infection cycle contributes to the fitness of IHNV genotypes that differ in virulence in rainbow trout. This enabled us to determine how infection cycle fitness traits are independently associated with virulence. We found that viral fitness was independently regulated by each of the traits examined, with the largest impact on fitness being provided by within-host replication. Furthermore, the more virulent of the two genotypes of IHNV we used had advantages in all of the traits quantified. Our results are thus congruent with the assumption that virulence and within-host replication are correlated but suggest that infection cycle fitness is complex and that replication is not the only trait associated with virulence. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Emerson J.E.,Washington State University | Bollens S.M.,Western Fisheries Research Center
Aquatic Invasions | Year: 2015

The Asian copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi has recently become established in the Columbia River. However, little is known about its ecology and effects on invaded ecosystems. We undertook a 2-year (July 2009 to June 2011) field study of the mesozooplankton in four reservoirs in the Columbia and Snake Rivers, with emphasis on the relation of the seasonal variation in distribution and abundance of P. forbesi to environmental variables. Pseudodiaptomus forbesi was abundant in three reservoirs; the zooplankton community of the fourth reservoir contained no known non-indigenous taxa. The composition and seasonal succession of zooplankton were similar in the three invaded reservoirs: a bloom of rotifers occurred in spring, native cyclopoid and cladoceran species peaked in abundance in summer, and P. forbesi was most abundant in late summer and autumn. In the uninvaded reservoir, total zooplankton abundance was very low year-round. Multivariate ordination indicated that temperature and dissolved oxygen were strongly associated with zooplankton community structure, with P. forbesi appearing to exhibit a single generation per year. The broad distribution and high abundance of P. forbesi in the Columbia-Snake River System could result in ecosystem level effects in areas intensively managed to improve conditions for salmon and other commercially and culturally important fish species. © 2015 The Author(s).

Vollenweider J.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Gregg J.L.,Western Fisheries Research Center | Heintz R.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Hershberger P.K.,Western Fisheries Research Center
Journal of Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

The energetic costs of fasting and Ichthyophonus infection were measured in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in a lab setting at three temperatures. Infected herring incurred significant energetic costs, the magnitude of which depended on fish condition at the time of infection (fat versus lean). Herring that were fed continually and were in relatively good condition at the time of infection (fat) never stored lipid despite ad libitum feeding. In feeding herring, the energetic cost of infection was a 30 reduction in total energy content relative to controls 52 days post infection. Following food deprivation (lean condition), infection caused an initial delay in the compensatory response of herring. Thirty-one days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 32 reduction in total energy content relative to controls. Body composition of infected herring subsequently recovered to some degree, though infected herring never attained the same energy content as their continuously fed counterparts. Fifty-two days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 6 reduction in total energy content relative to controls. The greatest impacts of infection occurred in colder temperatures, suggesting Ichthyophonus-induced reductions in body condition may have greater consequences in the northern extent of herring's range, where juveniles use most of their energy reserves to survive their first winter. Copyright © 2011 Johanna J. Vollenweider et al.

Payne M.C.,Western Fisheries Research Center | Payne M.C.,Oregon State University | Brown C.A.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Reusser D.A.,Western Fisheries Research Center | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The quantification and description of sea surface temperature (SST) is critically important because it can influence the distribution, migration, and invasion of marine species; furthermore, SSTs are expected to be affected by climate change. To better understand present temperature regimes, we assembled a 29-year nearshore time series of mean monthly SSTs along the North Pacific coastline using remotely-sensed satellite data collected with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument. We then used the dataset to describe nearshore (&20 km offshore) SST patterns of 16 North Pacific ecoregions delineated by the Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) hierarchical schema. Annual mean temperature varied from 3.8°C along the Kamchatka ecoregion to 24.8°C in the Cortezian ecoregion. There are smaller annual ranges and less variability in SST in the Northeast Pacific relative to the Northwest Pacific. Within the 16 ecoregions, 31-94% of the variance in SST is explained by the annual cycle, with the annual cycle explaining the least variation in the Northern California ecoregion and the most variation in the Yellow Sea ecoregion. Clustering on mean monthly SSTs of each ecoregion showed a clear break between the ecoregions within the Warm and Cold Temperate provinces of the MEOW schema, though several of the ecoregions contained within the provinces did not show a significant difference in mean seasonal temperature patterns. Comparison of these temperature patterns shared some similarities and differences with previous biogeographic classifications and the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). Finally, we provide a web link to the processed data for use by other researchers.

Lapatra S.E.,Clear Springs Foods Inc. | Plant K.P.,University of Idaho | Alcorn S.,University of Washington | Ostland V.,Kent SeaTech Corporation | Winton J.,Western Fisheries Research Center
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2010

A candidate vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was developed using a bacterial lysate. To test the strength of protection, A. hydrophila challenge models were compared using injection into both the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity and the dorsal sinus (DS) with selected doses of live bacteria washed in saline or left untreated. Unlike the IP route, injection into the DS with either saline washed or unwashed cells resulted in consistent cumulative mortality and a dose response that could be used to establish a standard challenge having an LD50 of approximately 3 × 107 colony forming units per fish. Survivors of the challenge suffered significantly lower mortality upon re-challenge than naïve fish, suggesting a high level of acquired resistance was elicited by infection. Passive immunization using serum from hyper-immunized fish also resulted in significantly reduced mortality indicating protection can be transferred and that some portion of resistance may be antibody mediated. Vaccination of groups of rainbow trout with A. hydrophila lysate resulted in significant protection against a high challenge dose but only when injected along with Freund's complete adjuvant. At a low challenge dose, mortality in all groups was low, but the bacterial lysate alone appeared to offer some protection. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kim M.S.,Pukyong National University | Kim M.S.,Western Fisheries Research Center | Kim K.H.,Pukyong National University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

The role of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) NV gene in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was investigated. Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells pre-treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α showed a strong resistance against VHSV infection, but cells treated with TNF-α after VHSV infection showed no resistance, suggesting that immediate early TNF-α-mediated responses inhibit VHSV replication. Activation of NF-κB is a key step in TNF-α-mediated immunomodulatory pathways. In this study, activation of NF-κB by TNF-α exposure was inhibited in EPC cells harboring NV gene expressing vectors, indicating that the NV gene of VHSV can suppress TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation. Furthermore, the NV gene knock-out recombinant VHSV (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP) induced significantly higher NF-κB activity in EPC cells than wild-type VHSV, suggesting that VHSV adopted a strategy to suppress early activation of NF-κB in host cells through and NV gene. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Redman R.S.,Western Fisheries Research Center | Redman R.S.,University of Washington | Kim Y.O.,Western Fisheries Research Center | Kim Y.O.,University of Washington | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization).These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

Purcell M.K.,Western Fisheries Research Center | Laing K.J.,University of Washington | Winton J.R.,Western Fisheries Research Center
Viruses | Year: 2012

Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Penaranda M.M.D.,University of Washington | Penaranda M.M.D.,Western Fisheries Research Center | LaPatra S.E.,Clear Springs Foods Inc. | Kurath G.,University of Washington | Kurath G.,Western Fisheries Research Center
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2011

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes significant mortality in salmonid species. In North America IHNV has three major genogroups designated U, M, and L. Host-specificity of the M and U genogroups of IHNV has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges, with M isolates being more prevalent and more virulent in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and U isolates being more prevalent and highly virulent in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). In this study, efficacy of DNA vaccines containing either M (pM) or U (pU) virus glycoprotein genes was investigated during intra- and cross-genogroup challenges in rainbow trout. In virus challenges at 7 days post-vaccination (early antiviral response), both pM and pU were highly protective against either M or U IHNV. In challenges at 28 days post-vaccination (specific antiviral response), both pM and pU were protective against M IHNV but the homologous pM vaccine was significantly more protective than pU in one of two experiments. At this stage both pM and pU induced comparably high protection against U IHNV challenge. Correlates of protection were also investigated by assessing the expression of the interferon-stimulated gene Mx-1 and the production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) following pM or pU DNA vaccination. Mx-1 gene expression, measured at 4 and 7 days post-vaccination as an indicator of the host innate immune response, was found to be significantly higher after pM than pU vaccination in some cases. Neutralizing antibody was produced in response to the two vaccines, but antibody titers did not show consistent correlation with protection. The results show that the rainbow trout innate and adaptive immune responses have some ability to distinguish between the U and M genogroup IHNV, but overall the pM and pU vaccines were protective against both homologous and cross-genogroup challenges. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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