Ezemonye L.I.N.,University of Benin |
Enuneku A.A.,Western Delta University
Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2011
The adult crowned bullfrog, Hoplobatrachus occipitalis was exposed to 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L cadmium for 28 days. The effect of cadmium on selected biochemical parameters- superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver were tested. Biochemical observations revealed significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent increase in the specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) relative to controls. This could be due to increased production of these antioxidants to counteract oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by cadmium. Glutathione (GSH) level decreased with increase in the concentration of heavy metal. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which is an index of lipid peroxidation increased as concentration of cadmium increased. The increased level of TBARS in the liver of cadmium exposed frogs is an indication of increased membrane lipid peroxidation which could lead to cell damage. © Published by Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI) Trabzon.
PubMed | University of Benin, Western Delta University and University Of Fort Hare
Type: | Journal: Microbial pathogenesis | Year: 2017
The continuous misuse of antimicrobials in food animals both orally and subcutaneously as therapeutic and prophylactic agents to bacterial infections could be detrimental and contribute to the dissemination of resistant clones in livestock production. The present study was carried out to determine the antibiogram and virulence gene characteristics of Enterococcus species from pig farms. A total of 300 faecal samples were obtained from two pig farms in Benin City between February and July, 2016. Standard culture-based and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were adopted in the detection and characterization of the Enterococcus species. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined using disc diffusion method. A total of 268 enterococci isolates were recovered from both farms investigated. In Farm A, 94/95 (99%) of E. faecalis isolates were resistant to clindamycin; while 23/25 (92%) of E. faecium isolates were resistant to clindamycin. In farm B, all E. faecalis isolates 119/119 (100%) were resistant to clindamycin; while 26/29 (90%) of E. faecium isolates were resistant to clindamycin. Virulence gene detected in the enterococci isolates includes aggregation (asa1) [Farm A (E. faecalis 66%, E. faecium 76%), Farm B (E. faecalis 71%, E. faecium 13%)] and others. Multidrug resistant profile of the isolates revealed that 17/95 (18%) of E. faecalis and 3/25 (12%) of E. faecium isolates from Farm A as well as, 16/119 (14%) of E. faecalis and 5/29 (17%) of E. faecium isolates from Farm B were resistant to CLI
Adeoti L.,University of Lagos |
Alile O.M.,Covenant University |
Uchegbulam O.,Western Delta University
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2010
A total of five electrical imaging lines were measured using the wenner configuration. And a total of twelve VES was carried out within the area of investigation. The lines were aligned almost in a linearly NS azimuths, perpendicular to the ocean. The results were presented as profiles, multi-profiles, maps, pseudo sections and inverted sections. Interpretations of these results involve both qualitative and quantitative deductions from 1D and 2D geoelectric models. WingLink software was utilized for plotting, filtering, modeling and iterations of the resistivity data. From the quantitative interpretation and nearby well log data five distinct layers were identified. The layers are dry and unconsolidated sand, clayey sand, saline sand, saline clay and freshwater sand. The resistivity of the topsoil varies from 3259.59 Ohm-m on VES 2 -67.04 Ohm-m on VES 12. The resistivity of the freshwater sand varies from 1649.76 Ohm-m on VES 6 -158.28 Ohm-m on VES 10. The resistivity of the saline layer (saline sand/clay) varies from 2.06 Ohm-m on VES 12 -39.88 Ohm-m on VES 3. The depth to saline/freshwater interface varies from 12.97 m on VES 8 -63.01 m on VES 5. The quality of groundwater varies from poor polluted saline water saturated sand/clay through intermediate water quality clayey sand/sand to freshwater sand. The interpreted results show saline water plumes where they occur in different part of the area investigated. The 1D and 2D results correlate to a very high degree indicating saline water intrusion between depth interval of 13 and 64 m in the study area. Two major freshwater aquifers (shallow < 6 m and deep > 60 m) where delineated with most of them occurring unprotected. The results showed the effectiveness and usefulness of electrical resistivity and induced polarization method in mapping saline water intrusion problem in coastal areas. © 2010 Academic Journals.
Adeogun A.O.,University of Ibadan |
Chukwuka A.V.,University of Ibadan |
Okoli C.P.,Western Delta University |
Arukwe A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2016
The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes. © 2016 Taylor & Francis
PubMed | University of Ibadan, Western Delta University and Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A | Year: 2016
The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.
Mordi R.M.,Western Delta University |
Hugbo P.G.,Western Delta University
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011
Purpose: To determine the frequency of occurrence of Enterobacter species and their antibiogram from clinical specimens of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and wound obtained from University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: Specimens were obtained from patients who were seen at the various units of the hospital during the period January 2008 to June 2010. The total number of specimens was 6632, and were obtained from 1678 adult males, 2010 adult females and 2944 children. The specimens were collected prior to commencement of antibiotic therapy, and cultured immediately using standard bacteriological methods. Growths were identified by colonial morphology and characteristics, and biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed according to Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendation. The control organism was a sensitive strain of Eschrichia coli (NCTC 10418) Results: Two species of Enterobacter, namely, E. aerogenes (104; 97.2%) and E. sakazakii (3; 2.8%) were isolated from the four types of clinical specimens, accounting for 1.6% of all the samples. Sensitivity to antibacterials was as follows: ceftazidime (55.0%), ofloxacin (53.3%) and amoxicillin clavulanate (48.3%). They were strongly resistant to the other antibiotics used in the study, especially the cephalosporins. There was no significant difference in infection rate among the age groups (p > 0.05). However, there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between isolates from cerebrospinal fluid, on the one hand, and those from wound, urine and blood, on the other hand. Conclusion: The rate of isolation of Enterobacter species in the health facility was low. Remarkable drug resistance of the organisms make them clinically significant pathogens. © Pharmacotherapy Group.
Otajevwo F.D.,Western Delta University
Global journal of health science | Year: 2013
Microbial pathogens implicated in urinary tract infection and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns as prevalent in UTI symptomatic outpatients resident in Benin City, Nigeria was the focus of this study. One hundred (100) midstream urine samples were collected into sterile plastic universal bottles from outpatients who visited the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria and who were tentatively diagnosed as manifesting symptoms of UTI. Patients were referred to the Medical Microbiology department by the consulting doctors. Significant bacterial counts and neutrophil (pus cells) counts were carried out on samples by standard methods. Positive samples for both counts were inoculated aseptically on sterile MacConkey agar, Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar and Sabouraud Dextrose agar plates and incubated appropriately. Microbial isolates were identified and antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out on isolates by standard methods. Thirty nine (39.0%) and 61 (61.0%) samples recorded significant microbial growth and no growth respectively. Gram negative bacilli constituted 86.1% (of which enterobacteriaceae made up 49.9%) while gram positive cocci made up 13.9%. Strains of uropathogens isolated were Alcaligenes spp (19.4%), Klebsiella aerogenes (16.7%), Escherichia coli (13.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.9%), Candida albicans (11.1%), Proteus mirabilis (8.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.5%), Enterobacter spp (5.5%) and Providencia spp (5.5%). Occurrence of UTI in male and female patients were 58.3% and 41.7% respectively of which UTI occurred highest in the 25-46, 15-54 and 27-54 age groups in that decreasing order. Alcaligenes spp occurred most in very old female patients. Candida albicans (the only fungal uropathogen) occurred in an 8day old male patient. Other isolates occurred in much older patients. A significantly high microscopic neutrophil count or pyuria was recorded from deposits of UTI positive patients (i.e. < 5/HPF). Eighteen (representing 50.5%) and 15 (47.8%) of total microbial strains isolated were sensitive to nitrofurantoin and ceftriaxone respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility profile also showed 13(41.6%), 13(41.6%), 13(41.6%) for ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and ofloxacin respectively suggesting moderate sensitivity of the fluoroquinolones and second/third generation cephalosporins. Gentamicin, ampicillin and augmentin recorded over 70.0% resistance level each. A total of nineteen bacterial strains made of E.coli, Enterobacter spp, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia spp, Staph. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were multi drug resistant as they resisted 3, 3, 4, 4, 5 and 8 antibiotics respectively.
Akpojaro J.,Western Delta University |
Aigbe P.,Western Delta University |
Oyemade D.,Federal University of Petroleum Resources
International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security | Year: 2011
In this paper we study the properties of protocol independent multicast (PIM) in non-strictly hierarchical network environments. In particular, we investigate the cost (overhead) behaviour of the PIM protocols i.e., sparse mode (PIM-SM), dense mode with flood and prune mechanism (PIM-DMFP), dense mode with state refresh (PIM-DMSR), and source specific multicast (PIM-SSM). By assuming that the links in the networks are symmetrical, we assign equal values to both up and down links and then specify analytical models to evaluate the performance of the protocols in static multicast group scenarios. We determine the overhead of setting up the protocols in terms of the number of links a packet traverses. We generate numerical results to analyse the effectiveness of our model. Our results confirm that the PIM-SM protocol remains superior over the other three variants in most mean group sizes.
Ogeleka D.F.,Western Delta University |
Tudararo-Aherobo L.E.,Federal University of Petroleum Resources
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2011
The toxic stress of a commonly used dispersant (Caamol lubri-clean) on freshwater shrimp, Desmoscaris trispinosa, and brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus, was tested. The mean percentage mortality obtained for the 10-day experiment duration was 20, 60, 80, 100, 100% (freshwater test) and 20, 40, 63, 83, 100% (brackish water test). The 10 d median lethal concentration (LC 50) was estimated using the Finney Probit method of analysis and was found to be 53.33±3.52 mg/kg and 78.24±6.11 mg/kg for the fresh and brackish water acute toxicity tests, respectively. The release of dispersants into aquatic systems may affect bottom dwelling organisms inhabiting such environments due to the toxic nature of the surfactant component in the dispersant.
Igbinosa O.O.,Drexel University |
Igbinosa I.H.,University Of Fort Hare |
Chigor V.N.,University Of Fort Hare |
Uzunuigbe O.E.,Ambrose Alli University |
And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011
We assessed the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant potential of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol stem bark extracts of Jatropha curcas. The total phenol, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were evaluated to determine their effect on the antioxidant property of this plant, using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plant were also assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, (O 2 -) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) using spectroscopic methods and results were compared with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid as standards. The concentrations of different classes of phenolic compounds were higher in methanol and ethanol extracts compared to aqueous extracts. There was correlation between total phenol, total flavonoids, total flavonol and total proanthocyanidins (r = 0.996, 0.978, 0.908, and 0.985) respectively. There was correlations between the amount of phenolic compounds and percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals scavenging activity of the extract (r = 0.98). Findings from the present study indicated that J. curcas is a potential source of natural antioxidants and may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant based products. © 2011 by the authors.