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Danbury, CT, United States

Western Connecticut State University is a public university located in Danbury, Connecticut. Founded in 1903, Western has an arts and science curriculum, a business school, and several professional programs including elementary and secondary education, nursing, music performance, and social work. It is also home to The Jane Goodall Center for Excellence in Environmental Studies. Wikipedia.

Connally N.P.,Western Connecticut State University | Yousey-Hindes K.,One Public | Meek J.,One Public
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013

The selection of controls is an important methodological consideration for case-control studies. Neighborhood-matched control selection is particularly crucial for studies of vector-borne disease, such as Lyme disease, for which risk is intrinsically linked to geographical location. The matching of case-control pairs on neighborhood can help control for variation in ecological risk factors that are tied to geographical location, like vector and host habitat in the peridomestic environment. Random-digit dialing has been used to find neighborhood controls by using the area code and exchange of the case to generate lists of potential control households. An alternative to random-digit dialing is the purchase of residential telephone numbers from a commercial marketing database. This report describes the utility of the InfoUSA.com (InfoGroup, Papillion, Nebraska) commercial marketing database for neighborhood control recruitment in a Lyme disease case-control study in Connecticut during 2005-2007. © 2013 The Author.

Onafowora O.A.,Susquehanna University | Owoye O.,Western Connecticut State University
Energy Economics | Year: 2014

This paper examines the long-run and the dynamic temporal relationships between economic growth, energy consumption, population density, trade openness, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Brazil, China, Egypt, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, South Korea, and South Africa based on the environment Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. We employ the ARDL Bounds test to cointegration and CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests to ensure cointegration and parameter stability. The estimated results show that the inverted U-shaped EKC hypothesis holds in Japan and South Korea. In the other six countries, the long-run relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions follows an N-shaped trajectory and the estimated turning points are much higher than the sample mean. In addition, the results indicate that energy consumption Granger-causes both CO2 emissions and economic growth in all the countries. Our results are consistent with previous studies that show that there is no unique relationship between energy consumption, population density, economic growth, trade openness, and the environment across countries. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Doherty M.E.,Western Connecticut State University | Scannell-Desch E.,Mount Saint Mary College
Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health | Year: 2012

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to describe women's health and hygiene experiences during their deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan during the war years, 2003 through 2010. Methods: A phenomenological method described the essential structures embedded in the women's health and hygiene experiences. Colaizzi's method of data analysis was used to guide the discovery of themes. Interview data were gathered from 24 interviews with military nurses who served in the war zones. Female military nurses were specifically selected for this study because of their insight, awareness, and knowledge base. Results: Seven themes emerged from the data and captured the essence of the women's experiences: 1) bathroom trips and facilities: a walk on the wild side; 2) shower challenges: lack of privacy, water problems, and location issues; 3) menstruation: to suppress or not to suppress; 4) staying clean: a monumental task; 5) various infections: annoying distractions; 6) unintended pregnancies: wartime surprises; and 7) safety issues: enemy attacks and sexual assaults. Discussion: In the current military structure, more women are being deployed to combat zones and will endure the challenges and hardships described in this study. The health and hygiene experiences of deployed women are an important part of their daily lives in combat zones. Educational programs and clinical services need to be tailored to this cadre of women, with focused attention on preparation and anticipatory guidance prior to deployment. Access to health promotion and appropriate clinical services during deployment is critical. Finally, as these women return home as veterans, it is important for all providers to understand the contextual framework of their service and its impact on their lives. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

Sinkeldam R.W.,University of California at San Diego | Greco N.J.,University of California at San Diego | Greco N.J.,Western Connecticut State University | Tor Y.,University of California at San Diego
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2010

The designing fluorescent probes for the four major families of macromolecular building blocks, lipids, monosaccharides, amino acids, and nucleosides, are studied. In an ideal situation, an emissive analog of any naturally occurring biomolecular building block should closely resemble its natural counterpart and retain the original function. The study revealed that not all applications require the strict imposition of isomorphic design criteria. Furthermore, the different chemical natures of the distinct families of biomolecular building blocks inherently control the possible structural and electronic changes. The heterocyclic nucleobases provide a fertile platform for modifications that easily alter the photophysical characteristics. This also holds true for certain aromatic amino acids. In contrast, turning phospholipids or monosaccharides into emissive analogs requires rather creative and sometimes drastic modifications, with saccharides being viewed as the most limiting in this respect.

In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using proton NMR. Using the calibration curve of the peak areas of the methyl protons of sodium acetate versus the concentration of the sodium acetate solutions, the concentration of the unknown is determined through extrapolation to the x axis. In a separate experiment, the unknown concentration of sodium acetate is found using the standard addition equation. In this case, the methyl peak areas in the unknown sodium acetate solution and the unknown sodium acetate spiked with a standard are obtained using proton NMR. The standard addition equation is then used to find the concentration of the unknown. This experiment has been successfully used in the undergraduate analytical lab and students have learned the method of standard addition to find unknown concentrations of sodium acetate in the millimolar range. It has also given them the opportunity to have hands-on experience using NMR spectroscopy as a quantitative tool. © 2012 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.

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