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Thottungal A.D.,King Edward Memorial Hospital | Charles A.K.,Princess Margaret Hospital | Dickinson J.E.,University of Western Australia | Bower C.,Western Australian Birth Defects Registry
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2010

Abnormally formed lower limbs with varying degrees of fusion are the major feature of sirenomelia whereas maldeveloped lower limbs without fusion are found in association with caudal dysgenesis (CD). The relationship between these two entities has been a topic of debate for many years. The presence of a single umbilical artery originating from the abdominal aorta was considered a major feature distinguishing sirenomelia from CD. Based on this finding, the vascular steal theory was put forward as the causative mechanism of sirenomelia. CD and sirenomelia were considered to be two entirely different entities with distinct pathogenic mechanisms. However, it is now clear that a single umbilical artery can be found in some patients of CD and normal umbilical arteries in some patients of sirenomelia. The hypothesis of primary deficiency of caudal mesoderm caused by early developmental disruption suggests that sirenomelia and CD are two ends of a spectrum of maldevelopment of caudal mesoderm. In this paper we report on the clinical and pathological features of 16 patients of CD and 9 patients of sirenomelia from our institution and review the literature. This series of cases is notable for the significant association with neural tube defects, refining the renal and urogenital pathology associated with these conditions, and supporting the concept of a continuum of the disease spectrum. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Cocchi G.,Istituto Clinico di Pediatria Preventiva e Neonatologia | Gualdi S.,Istituto Clinico di Pediatria Preventiva e Neonatologia | Bower C.,Western Australian Birth Defects Registry | Halliday J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | And 22 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine trends of Down syndrome (DS) in relation to maternal age and termination of pregnancies (ToP) in 20 registries of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). METHODS: Trends of births with DS (live-born and stillborn), ToP with DS, and maternal age (percentage of mothers older than 35 years) were examined by year over a 12-year period (1993-2004). The total mean number of births covered was 1550,000 annually. RESULTS: The mean percentage of mothers older than 35 years of age increased from 10.9% in 1993 to 18.8% in 2004. However, a variation among the different registers from 4-8% to 20-25% of mothers >35 years of age was found. The total mean prevalence of DS (still births, live births, and ToP) increased from 13.1 to 18.2/10,000 births between 1993 and 2004. The total mean prevalence of DS births remained stable at 8.3/10,000 births, balanced by a great increase of ToP. In the registers from France, Italy, and the Czech Republic, a decrease of DS births and a great increase of ToP was observed. The number of DS births remained high or even increased in Canada Alberta, and Norway during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Although an increase in older mothers was observed in most registers, the prevalence of DS births remained stable in most registers as a result of increasing use of prenatal diagnostic procedures and ToP with DS. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Bower C.,Western Australian Birth Defects Registry | Bower C.,University of Western Australia | Rudy E.,Western Australian Birth Defects Registry | Callaghan A.,Western Australian Birth Defects Registry | And 3 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Many birth defects surveillance programs ascertain cases of birth defects diagnosed beyond 1 year of age. The Western Australian (WA) Birth Defects Registry includes cases diagnosed up to 6 years of age, but the value of extending ascertainment beyond 1 year has not been assessed. METHODS: We examined the age at diagnosis for all cases and all birth defects notified to the WA Birth Defects Registry for births and terminations of pregnancy in 2000 and 2001 and estimated the amount of person time needed to ascertain cases diagnosed beyond 1 year of age. RESULTS: Of the 3294 cases of birth defects, 616 (18.7%) had at least one birth defect diagnosed prenatally, 1574 cases (47.8%) were first diagnosed by 1 month of age, 671 infants (20.4%) were first diagnosed with a birth defect from 1 month up to 1 year, and 400 cases (12.1%) were first diagnosed between 1 and 6 years of age. Two thirds of children diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, and one quarter of those with congenital hearing loss were diagnosed beyond 1 year of age. We estimated that it took 1.76 person weeks work per annum to ascertain cases diagnosed between 1 and 6 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: One in eight cases of birth defects were ascertained beyond 1 year of age. We consider that the additional work required to include these cases in Western Australia is outweighed by the benefit of more complete ascertainment. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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