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Golden, CO, United States

The Western Area Power Administration markets and delivers hydroelectric power and related services within a 15-state region of the central and western U.S. It is one of four power marketing administrations within the U.S. Department of Energy having the role to market and transmit electricity from multi-use water projects to retail power distribution companies and public authorities. Its transmission system carries electricity from 55 hydropower plants operated by the Bureau of Reclamation, United States Army Corps of Engineers and the International Boundary and Water Commission. Together, these plants have a capacity of 10,600 megawatts. WAPA is headquartered in the Denver, Colorado suburb of Lakewood, Colorado.WAPA built several parts of the important Path 15 corridor that connects power grids in the Southwest and Pacific Northwest . Recently, WAPA helped remedy a transmission bottleneck near Los Banos, California. That bottleneck was one of the reasons for the California electricity crisis in 2000-01. Another important transmission corridor WAPA built was Path 66, paralleling Path 15.WAPA also owns and operates many electric power substations like the Mead substation to distribute power within the region.WAPA and its energy-producing partners are separately managed and financed. In addition, each water project maintains a separate financial system and records. Wikipedia.

Davis J.L.,Fish and Parks | Barnes M.E.,Fish and Parks | Wilhite J.W.,Western Area Power Administration
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2013

This study evaluated the efficacy of two potential zero-withdrawal anesthetics, Benzoak (20% benzocaine; 50, 60, and 75 mg/L) and Aqui-SE (50% eugenol; 50, 60, and 75 mg/L) compared with tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222; 55, 80, and 100 mg/L), to anesthetize Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss for PIT tag implantation surgery. In general, higher doses resulted in faster induction time to stage 4 anesthesia (defined by the cessation of reflex activity). At 204 s, the time to stage 4 anesthesia was slowest using MS-222 at 55 mg/L, followed by 50 mg/L of either Benzoak and Aqui-SE, which in turn were significantly slower to induce this level of anesthesia than were Benzoak or Aqui-SE at 60 or 75 mg/L or MS-222 at 80 mg/L. At 100 mg/L, MS-222 had the quickest time, 57 s, to stage 4 anesthesia. Time to recovery was longest for Rainbow Trout exposed to any concentration of Aqui-SE and shortest for MS-222, and recovery times from Benzoak were intermediate. Although Rainbow Trout length and weight varied significantly among the treatments, time to anesthesia and recovery were more dependent on the anesthetic and concentration used. In our opinion, doses of either Benzoak or Aqui-SE of greater than 60 mg/L will induce rapid anesthesia and provide relatively quick recovery times for adult Rainbow Trout. Received July 27, 2012; accepted January 10, 2013. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Sporer M.K.,Western Area Power Administration | Dwyer J.F.,EDM International Inc. | Gerber B.D.,Colorado State University | Harness R.E.,EDM International Inc. | Pandey A.K.,EDM International Inc.
Wildlife Society Bulletin | Year: 2013

Overhead power lines can pose collision risks to birds. Risks may be mitigated through marking lines with high-visibility devices, but the effectiveness of line marking remains unclear. Effectiveness is particularly poorly described for lines bisecting open water, where detection of carcasses can be difficult. We marked 3 of 9 spans (lines between adjacent structures) along a causeway crossing open water and 2 adjacent spans over lake shores between Lake Sakakawea and Lake Audubon near Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota, USA. Over 3 years, we found 1,186 avian carcasses, including 276 attributed to power-line collision. American coots (Fulica americana; n=83) and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus; n=27) were the species most commonly associated with power-line collision, but we also found carcasses of 51 other species, including a piping plover (Charadrius melodus; n=1). Multivariable modeling indicated line marking over open water reduced predicted collisions per span per season (mid-April through mid-October, 2006-2008) from 10.3 to 5.8. Birds with high-aspect-ratio wings benefitted most from line marking (e.g., shorebirds and gulls). If the 9 open-water spans we studied were unmarked for 30 years, we predicted 2,775 collisions. We predicted only 1,560 collisions if all of these spans were marked. Our data demonstrate that a wide variety of avian species are at risk of collision with lines bisecting open water, marking lines can reduce collision risk, and because collisions persisted and some line markers fell off power lines, improvements to effectively mark lines are needed. © 2013 The Wildlife Society.

Biggins D.E.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Biggins D.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Miller B.J.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Miller B.J.,Wind River | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Mammalogy | Year: 2011

Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) likely were extirpated from the wild in 19851986, and their repatriation depends on captive breeding and reintroduction. Postrelease survival of animals can be affected by behavioral changes induced by captivity. We released neutered Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii), close relatives of ferrets, in 19891990 on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in Colorado and Wyoming initially to test rearing and reintroduction techniques. Captive-born polecats were reared in cages or cages plus outdoor pens, released from elevated cages or into burrows, and supplementally fed or not fed. We also translocated wild-born polecats from China in 1990 and released captive-born, cage-reared black-footed ferrets in 1991, the 1st such reintroduction of black-footed ferrets. We documented mortality for 55 of 92 radiotagged animals in these studies, mostly due to predation (46 cases). Coyotes (Canis latrans) killed 31 ferrets and polecats. Supplementally fed polecats survived longer than nonprovisioned polecats. With a model based on deaths per distance moved, survival was highest for wild-born polecats, followed by pen-experienced, then cage-reared groups. Indexes of abundance (from spotlight surveys) for several predators were correlated with mortality rates of polecats and ferrets due to those predators. Released black-footed ferrets had lower survival rates than their ancestral population in Wyoming, and lower survival than wild-born and translocated polecats, emphasizing the influence of captivity. Captive-born polecats lost body mass more rapidly postrelease than did captive-born ferrets. Differences in hunting efficiency and prey selection provide further evidence that these polecats and ferrets are not ecological equivalents in the strict sense. © 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

Biggins D.E.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Biggins D.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Hanebury L.R.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Hanebury L.R.,Western Area Power Administration | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Mammalogy | Year: 2011

Ecologically equivalent species serve similar functions in different communities, and an ecological surrogate species can be used as a substitute for an equivalent species in a community. Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanii) and black-footed ferrets (M. nigripes) have long been considered ecological equivalents. Polecats also have been used as investigational surrogates for black-footed ferrets, yet the similarities and differences between the 2 species are poorly understood. We contrasted activity patterns of radiotagged polecats and ferrets released onto ferret habitat. Ferrets tended to be nocturnal and most active after midnight. Polecats were not highly selective for any period of the day or night. Ferrets and polecats moved most during brightly moonlit nights. The diel activity pattern of ferrets was consistent with avoidance of coyotes (Canis latrans) and diurnal birds of prey. Similarly, polecat activity was consistent with avoidance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in their natural range. Intraguild predation (including interference competition) is inferred as a selective force influencing behaviors of these mustelines. Examination of our data suggests that black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats might be ecological equivalents but are not perfect surrogates. Nonetheless, polecats as surrogates for black-footed ferrets have provided critical insight needed, especially related to predation, to improve the success of ferret reintroductions. © 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

Belk M.C.,Brigham Young University | Billman E.J.,Brigham Young University | Ellsworth C.,Western Area Power Administration | McMillan B.R.,Brigham Young University
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Restoration of altered or degraded habitats is often a key component in the conservation plan of native aquatic species, but introduced species may influence the response of the native community to restoration. Recent habitat restoration of the middle section of the Provo River in central Utah, USA, provided an opportunity to evaluate the effect of habitat restoration on the native fish community in a system with an introduced, dominant predator-brown trout (Salmo trutta). To determine the change in distribution of fish species and community composition, we surveyed 200 m of each of the four study reaches both before restoration (1998) and after restoration (2007 and 2009). Juveniles and adults of six native species increased in distribution after restoration. The variation in fish community structure among reaches was lower post-restoration than pre-restoration. Overall, restoration of complex habitat in the middle Provo River led to increased pattern of coexistence between native fishes and introduced brown trout, but restoration activities did not improve the status of the river's two rarest native fish species. Habitat restoration may only be completely successful in terms of restoring native communities when the abundance of invasive species can be kept at low levels. © 2016 by the authors.

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