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Hamilton R.G.,Johns Hopkins University | Hamilton R.G.,Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center | Kleine-Tebbe J.,Allergy & Asthma Center Westend
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports | Year: 2015

Application of purified native and recombinant allergenic molecules into IgE antibody assays can improve analytical sensitivity and specificity for selected allergen specificities. They enhance analytical sensitivity by allowing assays to detect IgE antibodies with a lower limit of quantification (LoQ) to missing or poorly represented allergens in diagnostic extracts that are commonly used in vivo and in vitro. Use of selected allergenic molecules can help improve the clinician’s prediction of the risk of a serious allergic reaction to stable allergens. They can provide diagnostic information to determine if a provocation challenge (e.g., oral food challenge) is indeed mandatory or not necessarily needed to support the final diagnostic decision. Suspected cross-reactivity based on the clinical history can be adjudicated by analyzing IgE antibodies to allergenic molecules from cross-reactive protein families. Finally, genuine primary sensitization can be identified by IgE antibody responses that are measured to selected allergenic molecules which are present in only one particular allergen source. After allergen-specific IgE detection, careful interpretation is required by the physician who knows the patient’s history. Applying single allergen molecules, positive IgE antibody results are still only relevant in the case of corresponding objective symptoms. Subsequently, clinical relevance of such an IgE antibody test result must be determined by the clinician and not by the test itself. Because of their comprehensive nature, allergen extracts will remain the principal allergen source for diagnostic in vivo and in vitro assays of IgE antibody for many years. Judicious use of individual allergenic molecules in serum IgE assays may provide their most cost effective and efficient application for establishing a definitive diagnosis of human allergic disease. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Matricardi P.M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Kleine-Tebbe J.,Allergy & Asthma Center Westend | Hoffmann H.J.,Aarhus University Hospital | Valenta R.,Medical University of Vienna | And 67 more authors.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2016

The availability of allergen molecules (‘components’) from several protein families has advanced our understanding of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated responses and enabled ‘component-resolved diagnosis’ (CRD). The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Molecular Allergology User's Guide (MAUG) provides comprehensive information on important allergens and describes the diagnostic options using CRD. Part A of the EAACI MAUG introduces allergen molecules, families, composition of extracts, databases, and diagnostic IgE, skin, and basophil tests. Singleplex and multiplex IgE assays with components improve both sensitivity for low-abundance allergens and analytical specificity; IgE to individual allergens can yield information on clinical risks and distinguish cross-reactivity from true primary sensitization. Part B discusses the clinical and molecular aspects of IgE-mediated allergies to foods (including nuts, seeds, legumes, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, milk, egg, meat, fish, and shellfish), inhalants (pollen, mold spores, mites, and animal dander), and Hymenoptera venom. Diagnostic algorithms and short case histories provide useful information for the clinical workup of allergic individuals targeted for CRD. Part C covers protein families containing ubiquitous, highly cross-reactive panallergens from plant (lipid transfer proteins, polcalcins, PR-10, profilins) and animal sources (lipocalins, parvalbumins, serum albumins, tropomyosins) and explains their diagnostic and clinical utility. Part D lists 100 important allergen molecules. In conclusion, IgE-mediated reactions and allergic diseases, including allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, food reactions, and insect sting reactions, are discussed from a novel molecular perspective. The EAACI MAUG documents the rapid progression of molecular allergology from basic research to its integration into clinical practice, a quantum leap in the management of allergic patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Source

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