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Milton Keynes, United Kingdom

Singleton N.,UK Drug Policy Commission | Rubin J.,Westbrook Center
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2014

The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose?As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the development and inclusion of an evidence base where possible. This paper draws on findings of the study to highlight challenges associated with defining good governance, provides an example of a framework for assessing drug policy governance and discusses the feasibility, transferability and potential benefits of such an undertaking. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ariel B.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Ariel B.,University of Cambridge | Farrar W.A.,University of Cambridge | Sutherland A.,Westbrook Center | Sutherland A.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Quantitative Criminology | Year: 2015

Objective: Police use-of-force continues to be a major source of international concern, inviting interest from academics and practitioners alike. Whether justified or unnecessary/excessive, the exercise of power by the police can potentially tarnish their relationship with the community. Police misconduct can translate into complaints against the police, which carry large economic and social costs. The question we try to answer is: do body-worn-cameras reduce the prevalence of use-of-force and/or citizens’ complaints against the police? Methods: We empirically tested the use of body-worn-cameras by measuring the effect of videotaping police–public encounters on incidents of police use-of-force and complaints, in randomized-controlled settings. Over 12 months, we randomly-assigned officers to “experimental-shifts” during which they were equipped with body-worn HD cameras that recorded all contacts with the public and to “control-shifts” without the cameras (n = 988). We nominally defined use-of-force, both unnecessary/excessive and reasonable, as a non-desirable response in police–public encounters. We estimate the causal effect of the use of body-worn-videos on the two outcome variables using both between-group differences using a Poisson regression model as well as before-after estimates using interrupted time-series analyses. Results: We found that the likelihood of force being used in control conditions were roughly twice those in experimental conditions. Similarly, a pre/post analysis of use-of-force and complaints data also support this result: the number of complaints filed against officers dropped from 0.7 complaints per 1,000 contacts to 0.07 per 1,000 contacts. We discuss the findings in terms of theory, research methods, policy and future avenues of research on body-worn-videos. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Patil S.,Westbrook Center | Geedipally S.R.,Texas A&M University | Lord D.,Texas A&M University
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2012

Recent studies in the area of highway safety have demonstrated the usefulness of logit models for modeling crash injury severities. Use of these models enables one to identify and quantify the effects of factors that contribute to certain levels of severity. Most often, these models are estimated assuming equal probability of the occurrence for each injury severity level in the data. However, traffic crash data are generally characterized by underreporting, especially when crashes result in lower injury severity. Thus, the sample used for an analysis is often outcome-based, which can result in a biased estimation of model parameters. This is more of a problem when a nested logit model specification is used instead of a multinomial logit model and when true shares of the outcomes-injury severity levels in the population are not known (which is almost always the case). This study demonstrates an application of a recently proposed weighted conditional maximum likelihood estimator in tackling the problem of underreporting of crashes when using a nested logit model for crash severity analyses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Burge P.,Westbrook Center | Netten A.,University of Kent | Gallo F.,Westbrook Center
Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2010

Increasingly, health economists are required to work across sectors when evaluating options for improving health, health care and well-being. Social care is a key sector which is both influenced by and influences the use and outcomes of health services. This paper reports on a developing approach to measuring social care outcome, designed to reflect outcomes across client groups. In this process it is important that we reflect the relative importance or value of these domains of outcome. This paper reports on a pilot study that investigated the feasibility of using discrete choice experiments to identify a financial "willingness to accept" valuation of a large number of domains and investigated factors associated with variations in respondents' preferences. We conclude that, while the domains themselves need further work, the approach provides a helpful starting point in the difficult issue of reflecting population preferences for a large number of social care outcome domains. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Winpenny E.M.,Westbrook Center | Marteau T.M.,University of Cambridge | Nolte E.,Westbrook Center
Alcohol and Alcoholism | Year: 2014

Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6-14 years; 15-24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Results: Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15-24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. Conclusion: The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Medical Council on Alcohol.

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