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Madison, WI, United States

Amato M.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Magzamen S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Magzamen S.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Imm P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2013

School suspensions are associated with negative student outcomes. Environmental lead exposure increases hyperactivity and sensory defensiveness, two traits likely to increase classroom misbehavior and subsequent discipline. Childhood Blood Lead Level (BLL) test results categorized urban fourth graders as exposed (2687; lifetime max BLL 10-20 μg/dL) or unexposed (1076; no lifetime BLL ≥5 μg/dL). Exposed children were over twice as likely as unexposed children to be suspended (OR=2.66, 95% CI=[2.12, 3.32]), controlling for covariates. African American children were more likely to be suspended than white children, but lead exposure explained 23% of the racial discipline gap. These results suggest that different rates of environmental lead exposure may contribute to the racial discipline gap. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Sumner S.,Duke University | Brown L.G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Frick R.,Food and Drug Branch | Stone C.,Bureau of Environmental Health Services | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

This study sought to determine the frequency with which food workers said they had worked while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea, and to identify restaurant and worker characteristics associated with this behavior. We conducted interviews with food workers (n= 491) and their managers (n = 387) in the nine states that participate in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network. Restaurant and worker characteristics associated with repeatedly working while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea were analyzed via multivariable regression. Fifty-eight (11.9%) workers said they had worked while suffering vomiting or diarrhea on two or more shifts in the previous year. Factors associated with workers having worked while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea were (i) high volume of meals served, (ii) lack of policies requiring workers to report illness to managers, (iii) lack of on-call workers, (iv) lack of manager experience, and(v) workers of the male gender. Our findings suggest that policies that encourage workers to tell managers when they are ill and that help mitigate pressures to work while ill could reduce the number of food workers who work while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea. © International Association for food protection. Source

Turyk M.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Anderson H.A.,West Wilson Street | Steenport D.,West Wilson Street | Buelow C.,Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Cross-sectional surveys of human blood and breast milk show increasing concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that parallel the expanded use in consumer products, but longitudinal studies are lacking. We compared levels of major BDE congeners in archived 1994-1995 blood samples collected from a cohort of frequent and infrequent Great Lakes fish consumers with levels in the blood collected from the same individuals in 2001-2003 and 2004-2005. In mixed linear regression models controlling for multiple measurements per individual and covariates, statistically significant increases were seen from 1994-1995 to 2001-2003 for ∑PBDEs and BDE-47, 99, and 153 and from 1994-1995 to 2004-2005 for ∑PBDEs and BDE-99, 100, and 153, but ∑PBDEs and BDE congeners did not change significantly between 2001-2003 and 2004-2005. Changes in body burdens of ∑PBDEs and BDE-47, 100, and 153 in men were modified by BMI, with greater increases in men with higher BMI. Increases in BDE-153 were greater for women than men, and a greater increase in BDE-100 was found in older participants. There was a shift in the congener distribution with a significant increase in the proportion of BDE-153 relative to BDE-47 from 2001-2003 to 2004-2005. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Meiman J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Tomasallo C.,West Wilson Street | Paulozzi L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2015

Background: Heroin abuse has increased substantially during the past decade in the United States. This study describes trends and demographic shifts of heroin overdoses and heroin-related fatalities in Wisconsin and contrasts these with prescription opioid overdoses. Methods: This study was cross-sectional using databases of emergency department (ED) visits, hospital admissions, and death certificates in Wisconsin, United States, during 2003-2012. Cases were Wisconsin residents treated for heroin or prescription opioid overdose, and residents who died of heroin-related drug poisoning. Primary measurements were rates over time and by geographic region, and rates and rate ratios for selected demographic characteristics. Results: During 2003-2012, age-adjusted rates of heroin overdoses treated in EDs increased from 1.0 to 7.9/100,000 persons; hospitalized heroin overdoses increased from 0.7 to 3.5/100,000. Whites accounted for 68% of hospitalized heroin overdoses during 2003-2007 but 80% during 2008-2012. Heroin-related deaths were predominantly among urban residents; however, rural fatalities accounted for zero deaths in 2003 but 31 (17%) deaths in 2012. Among patients aged 18-34 years, those hospitalized with heroin overdose were more often men (73.0% versus 54.9%), uninsured (44.2% versus 29.9%), and urban (84.3% versus 73.2%) than those with prescription opioid overdose. Rates of ED visits for heroin overdose in this age group exceeded rates for prescription opioid overdose in 2012 (26.1/100,000 versus 12.6/100,000 persons, respectively). Conclusions: An epidemic of heroin abuse is characterized by demographic shifts toward whites and rural residents. Rates of heroin overdose in younger persons now exceed rates of prescription opioid overdose. © 2015 . Source

Christensen K.Y.,West Wilson Street | Thompson B.A.,West Wilson Street | Werner M.,West Wilson Street | Malecki K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2015

Fish is an important source of nutrients including omega-3 fatty acids, which may reduce risk of adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease; however, fish may also contain significant amounts of environmental pollutants. The Wisconsin Departments of Health Services and Natural Resources developed a survey instrument, along with a strategy to collect human biological samples to assess the risks and benefits associated with long-term fish consumption among older male anglers in Wisconsin. The target population was men aged 50 years and older, who fish Wisconsin waters and live in the state of Wisconsin. Participants provided blood and hair samples and completed a detailed (paper) questionnaire, which included questions on basic demographics, health status, location of catch and species of fish caught/eaten, consumption of locally caught and commercially purchased fish, and awareness and source of information for local and statewide consumption guidelines. Biological samples were used to assess levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); vitamin D; and selenium in blood. Quantile regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between biomarker levels and self-reported consumption of fish from the Great Lakes and other areas of concern, other locally caught fish, and commercially purchased fish (meals per year). Respondents were largely non-Hispanic white men in their 60's with at least some college education, and about half were retired. Fish consumption was high (median of 54.5 meals per year), with most fish meals coming from locally-caught fish. Multivariate regression models showed that the effect of supplement use was much greater than that of fish consumption, on nutrient levels, although consumption of fish from the Great Lakes and areas of concern was significantly associated with higher levels of vitamin D even after controlling for supplement usage. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

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