Buckhannon, WV, United States
Buckhannon, WV, United States

West Virginia Wesleyan College is a regionally accredited private, coeducational, liberal arts college in Buckhannon, West Virginia, United States. It has an enrollment of about 1,400 students from 35 U.S. states and 26 countries. The school was founded in 1890 by the West Virginia Conference of the United Methodist church. The college assumed its current name on Tuesday June 5, 1906 . U.S. News & World Report considers West Virginia Wesleyan a regional college and ranks it 12th in the South and ranks it second in the South in the "Great Schools at Great Prices" category. In 2014, U.S. News & World Report again ranked West Virginia Wesleyan College as a 1st Tier College, and 14th on the list of Best Colleges in the South. West Virginia Wesleyan College is accredited by the Commission on Institutions of Higher Education of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.Wesleyan was listed as one of the "Best Southeastern Colleges" by the Princeton Review in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 and a "Best-Value College" in 2006 and 2007. Wesleyan is one of 150 schools to receive that distinction .Wesleyan continues to serve as a residential, liberal arts college. The primary majors are elementary and secondary education, business, and natural science. Wikipedia.

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Webb J.R.,West Virginia Wesleyan College | Burgess S.A.,University of Virginia | Cundari T.R.,University of North Texas | Gunnoe T.B.,University of Virginia
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2013

The controlled conversion of hydrocarbons to functionalized products requires selective C-H bond cleavage. This perspective provides an overview of 1,2-CH-addition of hydrocarbons across d0 transition metal imido complexes and compares and contrasts these to examples of analogous reactions that involve later transition metal amide, hydroxide and alkoxide complexes with d6 and d8 metals. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Isensee K.,University of Minnesota | Olmschenk G.,University of Minnesota | Rudnick L.,University of Minnesota | Delaney T.,West Virginia Wesleyan College | And 5 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We present a three-dimensional analysis of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A using high-resolution spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We observe supernova ejecta both immediately before and during the shock-ejecta interaction. We determine that the reverse shock of the remnant is spherical to within 7%, although the center of this sphere is offset from the geometric center of the remnant by 810kms-1. We determine that the velocity width of the nucleosynthetic layers is 1000kms-1 over 4000 arcsec2 regions, although the velocity width of a layer along any individual line of sight is <250kms-1. Si and O, which come from different nucleosynthetic layers in the progenitor star, are observed to be coincident in velocity space in some directions, but segregated by up to 500kms-1 in other directions. We compare these observations of the nucleosynthetic layers to predictions from supernova explosion models in an attempt to constrain such models. Finally, we observe small-scale, corrugated velocity structures that are likely caused during the supernova explosion itself, rather than hundreds of years later by dynamical instabilities at the remnant's reverse shock. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Moore J.H.,West Virginia Wesleyan College
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2015

Technological advances, market shifts in the recording industry, and aesthetic elements have converged to make recording and releasing a self-produced album financially feasible for the independent jazz musician. A critical step in the process of completing such a project involves the utilization of one ore more e-government services offered by the U.S. Copyright Office and the Library of Congress. This observational value assessment compares and contrasts these services with similar and related e-services in the private sector. © 2015 IEEE.

Delaney T.,West Virginia Wesleyan College | Kassim N.E.,U.S. Navy | Rudnick L.,University of Minnesota | Perley R.A.,U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

Characterizing the ejecta in young supernova remnants is a requisite step toward a better understanding of stellar evolution. In Cassiopeia A the density and total mass remaining in the unshocked ejecta are important parameters for modeling its explosion and subsequent evolution. Low frequency (<100 MHz) radio observations of sufficient angular resolution offer a unique probe of unshocked ejecta revealed via free-free absorption against the synchrotron emitting shell. We have used the Very Large Array plus Pie Town Link extension to probe this cool, ionized absorber at 9″ and 18.″5 resolution at 74 MHz. Together with higher frequency data we estimate an electron density of 4.2 cm-3 and a total mass of 0.39 M with uncertainties of a factor of 2. This is a significant improvement over the 100 cm-3 upper limit offered by infrared [S III] line ratios from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our estimates are sensitive to a number of factors including temperature and geometry. However using reasonable values for each, our unshocked mass estimate agrees with predictions from dynamical models. We also consider the presence, or absence, of cold iron- and carbon-rich ejecta and how these affect our calculations. Finally we reconcile the intrinsic absorption from unshocked ejecta with the turnover in Cas A's integrated spectrum documented decades ago at much lower frequencies. These and other recent observations below 100 MHz confirm that spatially resolved thermal absorption, when extended to lower frequencies and higher resolution, will offer a powerful new tool for low frequency astrophysics. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Allen G.E.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Chow K.,Weston High School | Delaney T.,West Virginia Wesleyan College | Filipovic M.D.,University of Western Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

An analysis of Chandra ACIS data for two relatively bright and narrow portions of the northwestern rim of G266.2-1.2 (a.k.a. RX J0852.0-4622 or Vela Jr.) reveal evidence of a radial displacement of 2.40 ± 0.56 arcsec between 2003 and 2008. The corresponding expansion rate (0.42 ± 0.10 arcsec yr-1 or 13.6% ± 4.2% kyr-1) is about half the rate reported for an analysis of XMM-Newton data from a similar, but not identical, portion of the rim over a similar, but not identical, time interval (0.84 ± 0.23 arcsec yr-1). If the Chandra rate is representative of the remnant as a whole, then the results of a hydrodynamic analysis suggest that G266.2-1.2 is between 2.4 and 5.1 kyr old if it is expanding into a uniform ambient medium (whether or not it was produced by a Type Ia or Type II event). If the remnant is expanding into the material shed by a steady stellar wind, then the age could be as much as 50% higher. The Chandra expansion rate and a requirement that the shock speed be greater than or equal to 1000 km s-1 yields a lower limit on the distance of 0.5 kpc. An analysis of previously published distance estimates and constraints suggests G266.2-1.2 is no further than 1.0 kpc. This range of distances is consistent with the distance to the nearer of two groups of material in the Vela Molecular Ridge (0.7 ± 0.2 kpc) and to the Vel OB1 association (0.8 kpc). © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

DeLaney T.,West Virginia Wesleyan College | Rudnick L.,University of Minnesota | Stage M.D.,Mount Holyoke College | Smith J.D.,University of Toledo | And 8 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

We used the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph to map nearly the entire extent of Cassiopeia A between 5 and 40μm. Using infrared and Chandra X-ray Doppler velocity measurements, along with the locations of optical ejecta beyond the forward shock, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the remnant. The structure of Cas A can be characterized into a spherical component, a tilted thick disk, and multiple ejecta jets/pistons and optical fast-moving knots all populating the thick disk plane. The Bright Ring in Cas A identifies the intersection between the thick plane/pistons and a roughly spherical reverse shock. The ejecta pistons indicate a radial velocity gradient in the explosion. Some ejecta pistons are bipolar with oppositely directed flows about the expansion center while some ejecta pistons show no such symmetry. Some ejecta pistons appear to maintain the integrity of the nuclear burning layers while others appear to have punched through the outer layers. The ejecta pistons indicate a radial velocity gradient in the explosion. In three dimensions, the Fe jet in the southeast occupies a "hole" in the Si-group emission and does not represent "overturning," as previously thought. Although interaction with the circumstellar medium affects the detailed appearance of the remnant and may affect the visibility of the southeast Fe jet, the bulk of the symmetries and asymmetries in Cas A are intrinsic to the explosion. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Olenich S.A.,West Virginia University | Audet G.N.,West Virginia University | Roberts K.A.,West Virginia University | Roberts K.A.,West Virginia Wesleyan College | Olfert I.M.,West Virginia University
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2014

Temporal expression of positive and negative angiogenic factors in response to detraining is poorly understood. We report the protein expression of anti-angiogenic peptides (thrombospondin-1, TSP-1; and endostatin) as well as pro-angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF; matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9), and nucleolin (a nuclear protein involved with synthesis and maturation of ribosomes) in response to detraining in triceps surae muscles of C57BL/6 mice. Male mice were allowed to exercise voluntarily for 21 days, and then basal and acute response to exercise were evaluated at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days detraining (D1, D7, D14, D28, respectively, n = 12/group). As seen in the D1 mice, training resulted in the increased muscle capillary-to-fibre ratio (C/F), increased maximal running time and elevated basal expression of VEGF and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (P < 0.05). After 7 days of detraining (D7), C/F levels were similar to control levels, but both basal VEGF and TSP-1 were elevated (P < 0.05). At D14 and D28, TSP-1 protein was not different compared to baseline levels; however, VEGF was elevated in gastrocnemius (GA), but not the soleus (SOL) or plantaris (PLT) muscles, of D14 mice. Endostatin tended to decrease in D14 and D28 compared to controls. Timing of nucleolin protein expression differed between muscle groups, with increases at D1, D7 and D14 in the PLT, SOL and GA muscles, respectively. The response of VEGF and nucleolin to acute exercise was blunted with training, and remained blunted in the PLT and SOL even after 28 days of detraining, at a time point long after muscle capillarization was observed to be similar to pre-training levels. These data suggest that TSP-1 may be a mediator of capillary regression with detraining, even in the face of elevated VEGF, suggesting that pro-angiogenic regulators may not be able to prevent the regression of skeletal muscle capillaries under physiological conditions. The responses of matrix metalloproteinases, endostatin and nucleolin poorly correlated with detraining-induced capillary regression. © 2014 The Physiological Society.

Gregg K.B.,West Virginia Wesleyan College
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Premise of the study: Virtually nothing is known about what actually happens during prolonged dormancy, the period during which signifi cant proportions of geophyte populations do not sprout after seasonal dormancy but remain alive underground, to emerge again 1 or more years later. This study investigated the fate of perennating buds on plants of the orchid Cleistes bifaria during prolonged dormancy, as well as effects of bud removal on dormancy and future sprouting. Methods: Fates of healthy perennating buds were observed by examining underground plant structures over an annual cycle (fall, spring, fall). Effects of bud loss were assessed by removal of mature buds from one group of plants, followed by comparison with a control group a year later. Key results: Of the 142 perennating buds under observation, 38% did not emerge in the spring, and all these were missing the buds that were present and healthy the previous fall. Removal of perennating buds in the fall did not affect whether a plant emerged in the spring; however, it reduced the number and size of perennating buds produced for the following year. Conclusions: For C. bifaria in West Virginia, prolonged dormancy appears to be the time period during which plants are recovering from the disappearance of perennating buds. Although the cause of bud loss remains unknown, research can now be focused on whether other species fail to emerge for the same reason, what causes buds to disappear, and why removal had no effect on spring emergence but negatively affected future sprouting. © 2011 Botanical Society of America.

Kahniashvili T.,Carnegie Mellon University | Kahniashvili T.,Laurentian University | Kahniashvili T.,Ilia State University | Kisslinger L.,Carnegie Mellon University | Stevens T.,West Virginia Wesleyan College
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

We study gravitational waves generated by the cosmological magnetic fields induced via bubble collisions during the electroweak (EW) and QCD phase transitions. The magnetic field generation mechanisms considered here are based on the use of the fundamental EW minimal supersymmetric and QCD Lagrangians. The gravitational waves spectrum is computed using a magnetohydrodynamic turbulence model. We find that the gravitational wave spectrum amplitude generated by the EW phase transition peaks at a frequency of approximately 1-2 mHz, and is of the order of 10-20-10-21; thus this signal is possibly detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The gravitational waves generated during the QCD phase transition, however, are outside the LISA sensitivity bands. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Banham T.,West Virginia Wesleyan College | Li B.,University of California at San Diego | Zhao Y.,George Washington University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2014

We explore a wide variety of patterns of closed surfaces that minimize the elastic bending energy with fixed surface area and volume. To avoid complicated discretization and numerical instabilities for sharp surfaces, we reformulate the underlying constrained minimization problem by constructing phase-field functionals of bending energy with penalty terms for the constraints and develop stable numerical methods to relax these functionals. We report our extensive computational results with different initial surfaces. These results are discussed in terms of the reduced volume and are compared with the known results obtained using the sharp-interface approach. Finally, we discuss the implications of our numerical findings. © 2014 American Physical Society.

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