West Virginia University is a public land grant research university in Morgantown, West Virginia, United States. Its other campuses include the West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery and Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a second clinical campus for the University's medical and dental schools at Charleston Area Medical Center in Charleston. WVU Extension Service provides outreach with offices in all of West Virginia's 55 counties. Since 2001, WVU has been governed by the West Virginia University Board of Governors.Enrollment for the fall 2013 semester was 29,466 for the main campus, while enrollment across all campuses totaled 32,348. WVU offers 191 bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional degree programs in 15 colleges.WVU has produced 24 Rhodes Scholars, including former WVU president David C. Hardesty, Jr. The University also has produced 36 Goldwater Scholars, 22 Truman Scholars, and 5 members of USA Today 's "All‑USA College Academic First Team." Wikipedia.
Li X.,West Virginia University
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Signal Processing | Year: 2011
Local smoothness and nonlocal similarity have both led to sparsity prior useful to image recovery applications. In this paper, we propose to combine the strengths of local and nonlocal sparse representations by Bayesian model averaging (BMA) where sparsity offers a plausible approximation of model posterior probabilities. An iterative thresholding-based image recovery algorithm using hybrid sparse representations is developed and its convergence property is analyzed using the theory of fixed point. Since nonlocal sparsity based on clustering relationship is nonconvex, we have borrowed the powerful idea of deterministic annealing (DA) to optimize the algorithm performance. It can be shown that as temperature decreases, our algorithm is capable of traversing different states of image structures (e.g., smooth regions, regular edges and textures). Fully reproducible experimental results are reported to support the effectiveness of the proposed image recovery algorithm. © 2011 IEEE.
Schmidt R.J.,West Virginia University
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2012
As the fastest growing sector of the incident ESRD population, older patients constitute a group for which renal replacement therapy has special implications. Older CKD patients have unique needs by virtue of advanced age, high prevalence of comorbid conditions, slower progression of renal disease, and reduced survival. Burdens and risks attendant to dialysis may be amplified in the older patient and patients with impaired functional status or comorbid conditions, and therefore, dialysis may confer little to no survival benefit. Rates of dialysis withdrawal are highest among the oldest patients, raising the possibility that the standard content of informed consent for dialysis warrants an age-sensitive approach that is attuned to the very different balance of pros and cons of dialysis for older patients with multiple comorbidities and younger patients with limited comorbidity. Informed consent for older patients should include presentation of risks, benefits, and burdens associated with dialysis, age-specific estimates of prognosis with and without dialysis, and potential for loss of independence and decline in functional status with initiation of dialysis. In this article, medical evidence and clinical practice guidelines relevant to advance care planning for the older patient with CKD are reviewed, issues to consider in the dialogue with older patients contemplating dialysis are presented, and recommendations for an age-attuned approach to informed consent for older CKD patients are made. © 2012 by the American Society of Nephrology.
McLaughlin M.A.,West Virginia University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2013
The North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves is a collaboration of researchers who are actively engaged in using North American radio telescopes to detect and study gravitational waves (GWs) via pulsar timing. To achieve this goal, we regularly observe millisecond pulsars with the Arecibo and Green Bank telescopes and develop and implement new instrumentation and algorithms for searching for and observing pulsars, calculating arrival times, understanding and correcting for propagation delays and sources of noise in our data and detecting and characterizing a variety of GW sources. We collaborate on these activities with colleagues in the International Pulsar Timing Array. We also educate students of all levels and the public about the detection and study of GWs via pulsar timing. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Vona-Davis L.,West Virginia University
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia | Year: 2013
Inflammation of the adipose tissues occurs in association with obesity. This inflammatory process leads to the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and a consequent elevation in prostaglandin (PG) production, which, together with proinflammatory cytokines, induce aromatase expression and estrogen synthesis. Infiltrating macrophages support the growth of breast epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells by producing a milieu of cytokines and growth factors. This scenario creates a microenvironment favorable to breast cancer growth and invasion. The eicosanoids promote further development and growth of breast cancers indirectly by the induction of aromatase, particularly in estrogen positive breast cancers, or by direct stimulatory effect of PGE2 and lipoxygenase (LOX) products on the more aggressive, estrogen-independent tumors. Beyond this, the local production of estrogens and proinflammatory cytokines which occurs in association with breast adipose tissue inflammation, and consequent activation of the estrogen receptor and nuclear factor-κB, provides a mechanism by which breast cancers develop resistance to selective estrogen receptor modulation and aromatase inhibitor therapy. The obesity-inflammation-eicosanoid axis in breast cancer does offer a therapeutic target for the prevention of relapse in breast cancer by improving the efficacy of antiaromatase therapy using COX/LOX inhibitors; however, careful consideration of menopausal status and obesity in patients is warranted. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
He P.,West Virginia University
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2010
In response to infections or tissue injury, circulating leucocytes adhere to and migrate from the vessel lumen to interstitial inflammatory sites to combat invading pathogens. However, these defensive actions may also cause host tissue injury and microvascular dysfunction through oxidative bursts or enzyme release. For decades, the interaction between leucocytes and microvessel walls has been considered as a critical event leading to organ dysfunction. Extensive investigations have therefore focused on blocking specific adhesive ligands to prevent tissue injury. However, anti-adhesion therapies have shown limited success in preventing vascular dysfunction in clinical trials. Numerous studies have demonstrated temporal and spatial dissociations of leucocyte adhesion and/or emigration from permeability increases. The mechanisms that initiate the adhesion cascade have been found to be distinct from those that trigger the leucocyte oxidative burst responsible for increasing microvessel permeability. Recent studies demonstrated that endothelial activation by inflammatory mediators is critical for initiating platelet adhesion and platelet-dependent leucocyte recruitment resulting in augmented increases in microvessel permeability. These new developments suggest that targeting endothelial activation via directly enhancing endothelial barrier function might be a more efficient strategy than focusing on anti-adhesion or platelet/leucocyte depletion to prevent vascular damage during inflammation. Owing to space limitations and the wide range of studies in the field, this article will not serve as a comprehensive review. Instead, it will highlight the emerging evidence of adhesion-uncoupled permeability changes and establish a basis for re-evaluating the coupled relationship between leucocyte/platelet activation and microvessel permeability to achieve a better understanding of permeability regulation during inflammation. © 2010 The Author.