Chase H.W.,University of Cambridge |
Frank M.J.,Brown University |
Michael A.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Bullmore E.T.,University of Cambridge |
And 2 more authors.
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2010
Background Central to understanding of the behavioural consequences of depression has been the theory that the disorder is accompanied by an increased sensitivity to negative compared with positive reinforcement (negative bias), whereas other theorists have emphasized a global reduction in sensitivity to reinforcement in depression (blunting).Method In this study, we used a probabilistic selection task that was designed to examine independently rates of learning to predict both positive and negative reinforcement. Twenty-three depressed out-patients and 23 healthy controls from the local population participated in the study.Results No evidence for a negative bias was observed on the task, either during acquisition of the task or during generalization of the learned information. Depressed patients responded slower on the task than controls but showed a similar modulation of reaction times (RTs) as controls following reinforcement. Evidence for blunting was observed on the training phase, as reflected in reduced trial-by-trial adjustment during this phase. However, this effect was related specifically to the severity of anhedonia, as measured by the SnaithHamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), and was independent of overall depression severity.Conclusions We argue that the observation of a negative bias or blunting in a group of depressed patients may be dependent on the neuropsychological task and the symptoms of the patients tested. Our results provide insight into how these theories might be further tested. © 2009 Cambridge University Press.
Sinha A.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Petkov S.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Meldrum D.,West Suffolk Hospital
Anaesthesia | Year: 2010
Unrecognised dural punctures are difficult to diagnose early. Failure of recognition may lead to sinister consequences. A case of unrecognised dural puncture in a young female leading to the development of subdural hygroma and cortical vein thrombosis is presented. The dilemma in the diagnosis of headache in such patients along with the significance of follow-up of all, including attempted, epidurals is also discussed. © 2009 The Authors.
Ollivere B.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Duckett S.,West Suffolk Hospital |
August A.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Porteous M.,West Suffolk Hospital
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2010
We prospectively examined the functional and radiographic outcomes of a serial cohort of 104 Birmingham Hip Resurfacings in an independent centre. Final follow-up was to a mean of 61 months, and six cases were lost to follow-up. Excellent results were obtained in 91%, but obese patients had significantly (p<0.03) poorer postoperative outcomes. Whilst there were no cases of neck fracture neck narrowing of up to 20 mm was noted. Radiolucent lines were present in a single zone in 9.4% (9/96) acetabular and 3.1% (3/96) femoral components. However, no components were definitely loose and there were no revisions for any reason during the period of the study. This independent series confirms that the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing gives excellent early clinical results and little early evidence of radiographic failure. The high rate of neck narrowing gives us cause for concern and we would recommend regular radiographic follow-up. © Springer-Verlag 2009.
Khandaker G.M.,University of Cambridge |
Khandaker G.M.,Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust |
Dibben C.R.M.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Jones P.B.,University of Cambridge |
Jones P.B.,Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2012
Maternal obesity in pregnancy has been linked with several adverse outcomes in offspring including schizophrenia. The rising prevalence of obesity may contribute to an increase in the number of schizophrenia cases in the near future; therefore, it warrants further exploration. We reviewed current evidence regarding maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. We searched PubMed and Embase databases and included studies that were based on large and representative population-based datasets. A qualitative review was undertaken due to heterogeneity between studies. Four studies with 305 cases of schizophrenia and 24,442 controls were included. Maternal obesity (pre-pregnant BMI over 29 or 30 compared with mothers with low or average BMI) was associated with two- to threefold increased risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring in two birth cohorts. High maternal BMI at both early and late pregnancy also increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. Discrepant findings from one study could be attributable to sample characteristics and other factors. The area needs more research. Future studies should take into account obstetric complications, diabetes, maternal infections and immune responses that might potentially mediate this association. © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Murphy F.C.,Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain science Unit |
Michael A.,University of Cambridge |
Michael A.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Sahakian B.J.,University of Cambridge |
Sahakian B.J.,MRC Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2012
Background Depression is associated with alterations of emotional and cognitive processing, and executive control in particular. Previous research has shown that depressed patients are impaired in their ability to shift attention from one emotional category to another, but whether this shifting deficit is more evident on emotional relative to non-emotional cognitive control tasks remains unclear.Method The performance of patients with major depressive disorder and matched healthy control participants was compared on neutral and emotional variants of a dynamic cognitive control task that requires participants to shift attention and response from one category to another.Results Relative to controls, depressed patients were impaired on both tasks, particularly in terms of performance accuracy. In the neutral go/no-go task, the ability of depressed patients to flexibly shift attention and response from one class of neutral stimuli to the other was unimpaired. This contrasted with findings for the emotional go/no-go task, where responding was slower specifically on blocks of trials that required participants to shift attention and response from one emotional category to the other.Conclusions The present data indicate that any depression-related difficulties with cognitive flexibility and control may be particularly evident on matched tasks that require processing of relevant emotional, rather than simply neutral, stimuli. The implications of these findings for our developing understanding of cognitive and emotional control processes in depression are discussed. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.
Zaghloul A.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Zaghloul A.,Norwich University |
Haddad B.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Haddad B.,University College London |
And 2 more authors.
Injury | Year: 2014
Introduction Ankle fractures are among the most common injuries of the lower extremity encountered by orthopaedic surgeons. With increasing population age and osteoporosis, the prevalence of these fractures is expected to increase. The aim of this study was to evaluate complications and the need for revision surgery after the surgical treatment of ankle fractures in patients over 60 years of age. We report the outcomes of 186 consecutive patients who underwent operative treatment for rotational ankle fractures in our institution from 2007 to 2010. Materials and methods Data were collected retrospectively for the purpose of this study. The outcome measures included minor complications which did not need further surgical intervention, that is, superficial wound infections, delayed wound healing, prominent implants and skin irritation, and major complications that prompted surgical intervention (due to deep wound infection, loosening of implants or loss of fixation). Medical complications were also recorded. Long-term complications (postoperative osteoarthritis) were not assessed in this study. Logistic regression analysis and Fisher's exact test were used to identify factors predicting higher risk of complications. Results The average age was 70.67 years (standard deviation (SD) 7.40). There were 132 (71%) females and 54 (29%) males. The overall rate of complications was 21.5% with 10.8% of them being major complications prompting surgical intervention for wound washout, removal of implants and revision of fixation. Statistical analysis showed that smoking, age, diabetes, local factors (osteopaenia, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, lymphoedema and venous insufficiency) and modified Charlson score were significantly associated with occurrence of complications. Gender had a marginally significant effect. Coronary artery disease and fracture type (Weber classification) did not have a significant effect on the outcome. Discussion and conclusion Our data show that surgical treatment of ankle fractures in the elderly is associated with a high rate of complications. The factors predicting a high rate of complications include smoking, age, diabetes, local factors and a higher modified Charlson score. It is important to bear the factors in mind whilst deciding whether surgical treatment should be used in the treatment of such fractures in the elderly and explains these to patients at the time of obtaining consent. Further large-scale studies are needed to validate the predictive value of the suggested modified Charlson score. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Hori S.,University of Cambridge |
Hori S.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Blanchet J.-S.,Beckman Coulter |
McLoughlin J.,West Suffolk Hospital
BJU International | Year: 2013
Despite the overall success of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, its use as a serum marker for prostate cancer has been limited due to the lack of specificity, especially in men presenting with a total PSA (tPSA) level of <10 ng/mL. PSA testing has also resulted in an increase in the number of patients being diagnosed with low-grade, potentially clinically insignificant prostate cancer. There is therefore an urgent need for new markers that can accurately detect as well as differentiate patients with aggressive vs unaggressive prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the emerging role of precursor forms of PSA (proPSAs) and the Prostate Health Index (phi) measurement in the detection and management of early stage prostate cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed® to identify key studies. Studies to date suggest that [-2]proPSA, a truncated form of proPSA is the most cancer-specific form of all, being preferentially expressed in cancerous prostatic epithelium and being significantly elevated in serum of men with prostate cancer. There is evidence to suggest that %[-2]proPSA measurement ([-2]proPSA/free PSA [fPSA] × 100) improves the specificity of both tPSA and fPSA in detecting prostate cancer. phi incorporating [-2]proPSA, fPSA and tPSA measurements has also yielded promising results and appears superior to tPSA and fPSA in predicting those patients with prostate cancer. Increased phi levels also seem to preferentially detect patients harbouring more aggressive disease. Further studies in the form of large, multicentre, prospective trials with detailed health economic analyses are required to evaluate the true clinical applicability of these novel markers. © 2012 BJU International.
Smith T.O.,University of East Anglia |
Drew B.T.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Toms A.P.,Norwich Radiology Academy
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery | Year: 2012
Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) have gained increasing favour in the assessment of patients with suspected glenoid labral injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MRI or MRA in the detection of gleniod labral lesions. Materials and methods: A systematic review was undertaken of the electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED and CINAHL, in addition to a search of unpublished literature databases. All studies which compared the ability of MRI or MRA (index test) to assess gleniod labral tears or lesions, when verified with a surgical procedure (arthroscopy or open surgery-reference test) were included. Data extraction and methodological appraisal using the QUADAS tool were both conducted by two reviewers independently. Data were analysed through a summary receiver operator characteristic curve and pooled sensitivity and specificity analysis were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Sixty studies including 4,667 shoulders from 4,574 patients were reviewed. There appeared slightly greater diagnostic test accuracy for MRA over MRI for the detection of overall gleniod labral lesions (MRA-sensitivity 88%, specificity 93% vs. MRI sensitivity 76% vs. specificity 87%). Methodologically, studies recruited and identified their samples appropriately and clearly defined the radiological procedures. In general, it was not clearly defined why patients were lost during the study, and studies were poor at recording whether the same clinical data were available to the radiologist interpreting the MRI or MRA as would be available in clinical practice. Most studies did not state whether the surgeon interpreting the arthroscopic procedure was blinded to the results of the MR or MRA imaging. Conclusions: Based on the available literature, overall MRA appeared marginally superior to MRI for the detection of glenohumeral labral lesions. Level of Evidence: Level 2a. © Springer-Verlag 2012.
Smith T.O.,University of East Anglia |
Drew B.,West Suffolk Hospital |
Toms A.P.,Norfolk and Norwich Hospital |
Jerosch-Herold C.,University of East Anglia |
Chojnowski A.J.,Norfolk and Norwich Hospital
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A | Year: 2012
Background: Triangular fibrocartilaginous complex (TFCC) tears are common sources of ulnar-sided wrist pain and resultant functional disability. Diagnosis is based on the history and clinical examination as well as radiographic evidence of a TFCC central perforation or a radial/ulnar tear. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) in the detection of TFCC injury in the adult population. Methods: Published and unpublished literature databases were searched. Two-by-two tables were constructed to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of MRI or MRA investigations against arthroscopic outcomes. Pooled sensitivity and specificity values and summary receiver operating characteristic curve evaluations were performed. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with use of the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) tool. Results: Twenty-one studies were included in the review, and these series included a total of 982 wrists. On meta-analysis, MRA was superior to MRI in the investigation of full-thickness TFCC tears, with a pooled sensitivity of 0.75 and a pooled specificity of 0.81 for MRI compared with 0.84 and 0.95, respectively, for MRA. MRA and MRI performed at greater field strengths were reported to have greater sensitivity and specificity than those performed at lower field strengths. There were insufficient data to assess the diagnostic test accuracy for partial-thickness TFCC tears. Conclusions: Given its acceptable diagnostic test accuracy, it is recommended that MRA, rather than MRI, be performed in when there are questions about the diagnosis and subsequent management of patients with ulnar-sided wrist pain. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.
News Article | October 27, 2016
DÜSSELDORF, Germany--(BUSINESS WIRE)--#MetaVision--iMDsoft, a leader in clinical information systems, is proud to be working with two of the NHS’s global digital exemplars, University Hospital Southampton and West Suffolk Hospital.