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McWilliam C.,West of Scotland Regional Genetics Service | Cooke A.,West of Scotland Regional Genetics Service | Lobo D.,East of Scotland Regional Genetics Service | Warner J.,East of Scotland Regional Genetics Service | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Paediatric Neurology | Year: 2010

A novel X-chromosome linked phenotype is reported. Three affected males had learning disability in early childhood and subsequently developed progressive ataxia, dystonia, and spasticity with death at ages 9, 14 and 19 years. Two female obligate carriers had learning difficulties with psychosis in one case. A third, possible carrier had learning difficulties and epilepsy. A family study indicates that this inherited syndrome is most likely due to an unreported MECP2 variant, p.V122A, located in the methyl binding domain of the MECP2 protein. The clinical features are similar to those present in the newly reported MECP2 duplication syndrome. Non-progressive neuropsychiatric symptoms in female relatives of a male child with learning disability, ataxia and progressive spasticity may constitute a clue to inherited, MECP2 pathogenesis. © 2009 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Source

Michot C.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Le Goff C.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Mahaut C.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Brooks A.S.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 27 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Myhre syndrome is characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, facial features, pseudomuscular hypertrophy, joint limitation and hearing loss. We identified SMAD4 mutations as the cause of Myhre syndrome. SMAD4 mutations have also been identified in laryngotracheal stenosis, arthropathy, prognathism and short stature syndrome (LAPS). This study aimed to review the features of Myhre and LAPS patients to define the clinical spectrum of SMAD4 mutations. We included 17 females and 15 males ranging in age from 8 to 48 years. Thirty were diagnosed with Myhre syndrome and two with LAPS. SMAD4 coding sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Clinical and radiological features were collected from a questionnaire completed by the referring physicians. All patients displayed a typical facial gestalt, thickened skin, joint limitation and muscular pseudohypertrophy. Growth retardation was common (68.7%) and was variable in severity (from -5.5 to -2 SD), as was mild-to-moderate intellectual deficiency (87.5%) with additional behavioral problems in 56.2% of the patients. Significant health concerns like obesity, arterial hypertension, bronchopulmonary insufficiency, laryngotracheal stenosis, pericarditis and early death occurred in four. Twenty-nine patients had a de novo heterozygous SMAD4 mutation, including both patients with LAPS. In 27 cases mutation affected Ile500 and in two cases Arg496. The three patients without SMAD4 mutations had typical findings of Myhre syndrome. Myhre-LAPS syndrome is a clinically homogenous condition with life threatening complications in the course of the disease. Our identification of SMAD4 mutations in 29/32 cases confirms that SMAD4 is the major gene responsible for Myhre syndrome. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Chaouch A.,Northumbria University | Brennan K.M.,Northumbria University | Hudson J.,Northumbria University | Longman C.,West of Scotland Regional Genetics Service | And 19 more authors.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: GNE myopathy is a rare recessive myopathy associated with inclusion bodies on muscle biopsy. The clinical phenotype is associated with distal muscle weakness with quadriceps sparing. Most of the current information on GNE myopathy has been obtained through studies of Jewish and Japanese patient cohorts carrying founder mutations in the GNE gene. However, little is known about GNE myopathy in Europe where the prevalence is thought to be very low.METHODS: Patients were referred through the National Specialist Commissioning Team service for limb-girdle muscular dystrophies at Newcastle (UK). All patients harbouring mutations in the GNE gene were recruited for our study. Detailed clinical and genetic data as well as muscle MRIs and muscle biopsies were reviewed.RESULTS: We identified 26 patients harbouring mutations in the GNE gene. Two previously reported mutations (c.1985C>T, p.Ala662Val and c.1225G>T, p.Asp409Tyr) were prevalent in the Scottish, Northern Irish and Northern English populations; with 90% of these patients carrying at least one of the two mutations. Clinically, we confirmed the homogenous pattern of selective quadriceps sparing but noted additional features like asymmetry of weakness at disease onset.CONCLUSIONS: GNE myopathy is an important diagnosis to consider in patients presenting with distal leg muscle weakness. We report, for the first time, two common mutations in the north of Britain and highlight the broader spectrum of clinical phenotypes. We also propose that the prevalence of GNE myopathy may be underestimated due to the frequent absence of rimmed vacuoles in the muscle biopsy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions. Source

De Rocker N.,Ghent University | Vergult S.,Ghent University | Koolen D.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Jacobs E.,Ghent University | And 27 more authors.
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2015

Purpose: Submicroscopic deletions of chromosome band 2p25.3 are associated with intellectual disability and/or central obesity. Although MYT1L is believed to be a critical gene responsible for intellectual disability, so far no unequivocal data have confirmed this hypothesis. Methods: In this study we evaluated a cohort of 22 patients (15 sporadic patients and two families) with a 2p25.3 aberration to further refine the clinical phenotype and to delineate the role of MYT1L in intellectual disability and obesity. In addition, myt1l spatiotemporal expression in zebrafish embryos was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount in situ hybridization. Results: Complete MYT1L deletion, intragenic deletion, or duplication was observed in all sporadic patients, in addition to two patients with a de novo point mutation in MYT1L. The familial cases comprise a 6-Mb deletion in a father and his three children and a 5′ MYT1L overlapping duplication in a father and his two children. Expression analysis in zebrafish embryos shows specific myt1l expression in the developing brain. Conclusion: Our data strongly strengthen the hypothesis that MYT1L is the causal gene for the observed syndromal intellectual disability. Moreover, because 17 patients present with obesity/overweight, haploinsufficiency of MYT1L might predispose to weight problems with childhood onset. © 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Source

Marttila M.,University of Helsinki | Lehtokari V.-L.,University of Helsinki | Marston S.,Imperial College London | Nyman T.A.,University of Helsinki | And 33 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2014

Mutations affecting skeletal muscle isoforms of the tropomyosin genes may cause nemaline myopathy, cap myopathy, core-rod myopathy, congenital fiber-type disproportion, distal arthrogryposes, and Escobar syndrome. We correlate the clinical picture of these diseases with novel (19) and previously reported (31) mutations of the TPM2 and TPM3 genes. Included are altogether 93 families: 53 with TPM2 mutations and 40 with TPM3 mutations. Thirty distinct pathogenic variants of TPM2 and 20 of TPM3 have been published or listed in the Leiden Open Variant Database (http://www.dmd.nl/). Most are heterozygous changes associated with autosomal-dominant disease. Patients with TPM2 mutations tended to present with milder symptoms than those with TPM3 mutations, DA being present only in the TPM2 group. Previous studies have shown that five of the mutations in TPM2 and one in TPM3 cause increased Ca2+ sensitivity resulting in a hypercontractile molecular phenotype. Patients with hypercontractile phenotype more often had contractures of the limb joints (18/19) and jaw (6/19) than those with nonhypercontractile ones (2/22 and 1/22), whereas patients with the non-hypercontractile molecular phenotype more often (19/22) had axial contractures than the hypercontractile group (7/19). Our in silico predictions show that most mutations affect tropomyosin-actin association or tropomyosin head-to-tail binding. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. Source

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