Gordon C.T.,University of Paris Descartes |
Vuillot A.,University of Paris Descartes |
Marlin S.,University of Paris Descartes |
Henderson A.,University of Groningen |
And 47 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2013
Background Auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS) is a rare craniofacial disorder consisting of micrognathia, mandibular condyle hypoplasia and a specific malformation of the ear at the junction between the lobe and helix. Missense heterozygous mutations in the phospholipase C, β 4 (PLCB4) and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), a inhibiting activity polypeptide 3 (GNAI3) genes have recently been identified in ACS patients by exome sequencing. These genes are predicted to function within the G protein-coupled endothelin receptor pathway during craniofacial development. Results We report eight additional cases ascribed to PLCB4 or GNAI3 gene lesions, comprising six heterozygous PLCB4 missense mutations, one heterozygous GNAI3 missense mutation and one homozygous PLCB4 intragenic deletion. Certain residuesrepresent mutational hotspots; of the total of 11 ACS PLCB4 missense mutations now described, five disrupt Arg621 and two disrupt Asp360. The narrow distribution of mutations within protein space suggests that the mutations may result in dominantly interfering proteins, rather than haploinsufficiency. The consanguineous parents of the patient with a homozygous PLCB4 deletion each harboured the heterozygous deletion, but did not present the ACS phenotype, further suggesting that ACS is not caused by PLCB4 haploinsufficiency. In addition to ACS, the patient harbouring a homozygous deletion presented with central apnoea, a phenotype that has not been previously reported in ACS patients. Conclusions These findings indicate that ACS is not only genetically heterogeneous but also an autosomal dominant or recessive condition according to the nature of the PLCB4 gene lesion.
PubMed | Belfast City Hospital, University of Edinburgh, James Cook University, Auckland Hospital and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of medical genetics. Part A | Year: 2016
KBG syndrome is characterized by short stature, distinctive facial features, and developmental/cognitive delay and is caused by mutations in ANKRD11, one of the ankyrin repeat-containing cofactors. We describe 32 KBG patients aged 2-47 years from 27 families ascertained via two pathways: targeted ANKRD11 sequencing (TS) in a group who had a clinical diagnosis of KBG and whole exome sequencing (ES) in a second group in whom the diagnosis was unknown. Speech delay and learning difficulties were almost universal and variable behavioral problems frequent. Macrodontia of permanent upper central incisors was seen in 85%. Other clinical features included short stature, conductive hearing loss, recurrent middle ear infection, palatal abnormalities, and feeding difficulties. We recognized a new feature of a wide anterior fontanelle with delayed closure in 22%. The subtle facial features of KBG syndrome were recognizable in half the patients. We identified 20 ANKRD11 mutations (18 novel: all truncating) confirmed by Sanger sequencing in 32 patients. Comparison of the two ascertainment groups demonstrated that facial/other typical features were more subtle in the ES group. There were no conclusive phenotype-genotype correlations. Our findings suggest that mutation of ANKRD11 is a common Mendelian cause of developmental delay. Affected patients may not show the characteristic KBG phenotype and the diagnosis is therefore easily missed. We propose updated diagnostic criteria/clinical recommendations for KBG syndrome and suggest that inclusion of ANKRD11 will increase the utility of gene panels designed to investigate developmental delay. 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PubMed | West Midlands Regional Genetics Service.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nursing times | Year: 2014
This sixth article in our series on rare diseases explores the impact of a genetic diagnosis on patients and their families. As genomic testing becomes mainstream, practitioners need to understand the role of genetics in disease and know how to refer patients for help and advice.