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Allali S.,University of Paris Descartes | Le Goff C.,University of Paris Descartes | Pressace-Diebold I.,University of Paris Descartes | Pfennig G.,University of Paris Descartes | And 24 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: Geleophysic dysplasia (GD, OMIM 231050) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by short stature, small hands and feet, stiff joints, and thick skin. Patients often present with a progressive cardiac valvular disease which can lead to an early death. In a previous study including six GD families, we have mapped the disease gene on chromosome 9q34.2 and identified mutations in the A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin repeats-like 2 gene (ADAMTSL2). Methods: Following this study, we have collected the samples of 30 additional GD families, including 33 patients and identified ADAMTSL2 mutations in 14/33 patients, comprising 13 novel mutations. The absence of mutation in 19 patients prompted us to compare the two groups of GD patients, namely group 1, patients with ADAMTSL2 mutations (n=20, also including the 6 patients from our previous study), and group 2, patients without ADAMTSL2 mutations (n=19). Results The main discriminating features were facial dysmorphism and tip-toe walking, which were almost constantly observed in group 1. No differences were found concerning heart involvement, skin thickness, recurrent respiratory and ear infections, bronchopulmonary insufficiency, laryngo-tracheal stenosis, deafness, and radiographic features. Conclusions It is concluded that GD is a genetically heterogeneous condition. Ongoing studies will hopefully lead to the identification of another disease gene. Source


Pal A.,University of Oxford | Pal A.,National Health Research Institute | Barber T.M.,University of Oxford | Van De Bunt M.,University of Oxford | And 13 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Epidemiologic and genetic evidence links type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cancer. The tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) has roles in both cellular growth and metabolic signaling. Germline PTEN mutations cause a cancerpredisposition syndrome, providing an opportunity to study the effect of PTEN haploinsufficiency in humans. Methods: We measured insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in 15 PTEN mutation carriers and 15 matched controls. Insulin signaling was measured in muscle and adiposetissue biopsy specimens from 5 mutation carriers and 5 well-matched controls. We also assessed the effect of PTEN haploinsufficiency on obesity by comparing anthropometric indexes between the 15 patients and 2097 controls from a population-based study of healthy adults. Body composition was evaluated by means of dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry and skinfold thickness. Results: Measures of insulin resistance were lower in the patients with a PTEN mutation than in controls (e.g., mean fasting plasma insulin level, 29 pmol per liter [range, 9 to 99] vs. 74 pmol per liter [range, 22 to 185]; P = 0.001). This finding was confirmed with the use of hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping, showing a glucose infusion rate among carriers 2 times that among controls (P = 0.009). The patients'insulin sensitivity could be explained by the presence of enhanced insulin signaling through the PI3K-AKT pathway, as evidenced by increased AKT phosphorylation. The PTEN mutation carriers were obese as compared with population-based controls (mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 32 [range, 23 to 42] vs. 26 [range, 15 to 48]; P<0.001). This increased body mass in the patients was due to augmented adiposity without corresponding changes in fat distribution. Conclusions: PTEN haploinsufficiency is a monogenic cause of profound constitutive insulin sensitization that is apparently obesogenic. We demonstrate an apparently divergent effect of PTEN mutations: increased risks of obesity and cancer but a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes owing to enhanced insulin sensitivity. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and others). Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Rubio-Cabezas O.,University of Exeter | Rubio-Cabezas O.,Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus | Minton J.A.L.,University of Exeter | Kantor I.,Josa Andras Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE - NEUROD1 is expressed in both developing and mature β-cells. Studies in mice suggest that this basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor is critical in the development of endocrine cell lineage. Heterozygous mutations have previously been identified as a rare cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). We aimed to explore the potential contribution of NEUROD1 mutations in patients with permanent neonatal diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We sequenced the NEUROD1 gene in 44 unrelated patients with permanent neonatal diabetes of unknown genetic etiology. RESULTS - Two homozygous mutations in NEUROD1 (c.427-428del and c.364dupG) were identified in two patients. Both mutations introduced a frameshift that would be predicted to generate a truncated protein completely lacking the activating domain. Both patients had permanent diabetes diagnosed in the first 2 months of life with no evidence of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction and a morphologically normal pancreas on abdominal imaging. In addition to diabetes, they had learning difficulties, severe cerebellar hypoplasia, profound sensorineural deafness, and visual impairment due to severe myopia and retinal dystrophy. CONCLUSIONS - We describe a novel clinical syndrome that results from homozygous loss of function mutations in NEUROD1. It is characterized by permanent neonatal diabetes and a consistent pattern of neurological abnormalities including cerebellar hypoplasia, learning difficulties, sensorineural deafness, and visual impairment. This syndrome highlights the critical role of NEUROD1 in both the development of the endocrine pancreas and the central nervous system in humans. © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Ansari M.,University of Edinburgh | Poke G.,University of Edinburgh | Ferry Q.,University of Oxford | Williamson K.,University of Edinburgh | And 74 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2014

Background: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem disorder with distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and growth failure as prominent features. Most individuals with typical CdLS have de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in NIPBL with mosaic individuals representing a significant proportion. Mutations in other cohesin components, SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8 and RAD21 cause less typical CdLS. Methods: We screened 163 affected individuals for coding region mutations in the known genes, 90 for genomic rearrangements, 19 for deep intronic variants in NIPBL and 5 had whole-exome sequencing. Results: Pathogenic mutations [including mosaic changes] were identified in: NIPBL 46 [3] (28.2%); SMC1A 5 [1] (3.1%); SMC3 5 [1] (3.1%); HDAC8 6 [0] (3.6%) and RAD21 1 [0] (0.6%). One individual had a de novo 1.3 Mb deletion of 1p36.3. Another had a 520 kb duplication of 12q13.13 encompassing ESPL1, encoding separase, an enzyme that cleaves the cohesin ring. Three de novo mutations were identified in ANKRD11 demonstrating a phenotypic overlap with KBG syndrome. To estimate the number of undetected mosaic cases we used recursive partitioning to identify discriminating features in the NIPBL-positive subgroup. Filtering of the mutation-negative group on these features classified at least 18% as 'NIPBL-like'. A computer composition of the average face of this NIPBL-like subgroup was also more typical in appearance than that of all others in the mutationnegative group supporting the existence of undetected mosaic cases. Conclusions: Future diagnostic testing in 'mutationnegative' CdLS thus merits deeper sequencing of multiple DNA samples derived from different tissues. Source


Spurdle A.B.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Spurdle A.B.,University of Queensland | Whiley P.J.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Thompson B.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | And 116 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2012

Background Clinical classification of rare sequence changes identified in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential for appropriate genetic counselling of individuals carrying these variants. We previously showed that variant BRCA1 c.5096G>A p. Arg1699Gln in the BRCA1 transcriptional transactivation domain demonstrated equivocal results from a series of functional assays, and proposed that this variant may confer low to moderate risk of cancer. Methods Measures of genetic risk (report of family history, segregation) were assessed for 68 BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) families recruited through family cancer clinics, comparing results with 34 families carrying the previously classified pathogenic BRCA1 c.5095C>T p.Arg1699Trp (R1699W) mutation at the same residue, and to 243 breast cancer families with no BRCA1 pathogenic mutation (BRCA-X). Results Comparison of BRCA1 carrier prediction scores of probands using the BOADICEA risk prediction tool revealed that BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln variant carriers had family histories that were less 'BRCA1-like' than BRCA1 c.5095C>T p.Arg1699Trp mutation carriers (p<0.00001), but more 'BRCA1-like' than BRCA-X families (p=0.0004). Further, modified segregation analysis of the subset of 30 families with additional genotyping showed that BRCA1 c.5096G >A p. Arg1699Gln had reduced penetrance compared with the average truncating BRCA1 mutation penetrance (p=0.0002), with estimated cumulative risks to age 70 of breast or ovarian cancer of 24%. Conclusions Our results provide substantial evidence that the BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) variant, demonstrating ambiguous functional deficiency across multiple assays, is associated with intermediate risk of breast and ovarian cancer, highlighting challenges for risk modelling and clinical management of patients of this and other potential moderate-risk variants. Source

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