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Kirbalar S.I.,Istanbul University | Gok A.,Istanbul University | Kirbaslar F.G.,Istanbul University | Tepe S.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute BATEM
Journal of Essential Oil Research

The peel extract of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) grown in Turkey was obtained by cold pressed (CP) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE) methods. The chemical compositions of the volatile extract samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In total, sixty-nine components have been identified corresponding to the (99.8%) of the whole volatiles in both samples. CP extraction led to lower amount of oxygenated compounds (3.7%) than the SFE extraction (4.2%); among these, carbonyls were predominant (2.09-2.10%) followed by alcohols (1.32-1.60%) and esters (0.12-0.40%). The main component is limonene (88.12-89.28%) followed by myrcene (4.64-3.77%). The oxygenated compounds present at higher levels are linalool (1.02-1.24%) and decanal (0.71-0.72%). © 2012 Taylor &Francis. Source

Topuz E.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute BATEM | Madanlar N.,Ege University | Erler F.,Akdeniz University
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin

The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), is one of the most economically important pests of greenhouse-grown vegetables and ornamentals in southwestern part of Turkey (Antalya). In the present study, the fumigant toxicity of Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil was tested against T. cinnabarinus on cucumber under greenhouse conditions in the autumn of 2007. Two successive applications with the oil using a concentration of 4 μL/L air were made at a time when the majority of mites were at active stages (larva, nymph and adult) of development. The first application in mid-October was applied in mid-day at a temperature of - 45°C (inner temperature at the greenhouse). The second application in mid-November was made in the evening (at 12°C) in the same greenhouse. After an exposure period of 12 h, treatment efficacy was determined by counting live/dead individuals (larva, nymphs and adults) from leaf samples, compared with that of a non-treated control. Sampling was done 1 day before and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after treatments. Fourteen days after each application, the first one resulted in 89.25% and 72.93% reduction in the populations of larva + nymphs and adults of the pest, respectively, compared to the non-treated control, whereas the second one in the evening was less effective (54.13% and 50.85%, respectively). Pulegone, determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was the major constituent of the oil (94.99%). The results obtained suggest that the essential oil from M. pulegium has potential to be used as a fumigant for management of T. cinnabarinus under greenhouse conditions. © by PSP. Source

Mutlu N.,Akdeniz University | Demirelli A.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute BATEM | Ilbi H.,Ege University | Ikten C.,Akdeniz University
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Key message: We developed highly reliable co-dominant SCAR markers linked to the Frl gene. FORL testing is difficult. The marker is expected to be quickly adapted for MAS by tomato breeders. Abstract: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici causes Fusarium crown and root rot (FCR), an economically important soil-borne disease of tomato. The resistance against FCR is conferred by a single dominant gene (Frl) located on chromosome 9. The aim of this study was to develop molecular markers linked to the Frl gene for use in marker-assisted breeding (MAS) programs. The FCR-resistant ‘Fla. 7781’ and susceptible ‘B560’ lines were crossed, and F1 was both selfed and backcrossed to ‘B560’ to generate segregating F2 and BC1 populations. The two conserved set II (COSII) markers were found linked to the Frl gene, one co-segregated with FCR resistance in both F2 and BC1 populations and the other was 8.5 cM away. Both COSII markers were converted into co-dominant SCAR markers. SCARFrl marker produced a 950 and a 1000 bp fragments for resistant and susceptible alleles, respectively. The linkage of SCARFrl marker was confirmed in BC2F3 populations developed by backcrossing the resistant ‘Fla. 7781’ to five different susceptible lines. The SCARFrl marker has been in use in the tomato breeding programs in BATEM, Antalya, Turkey, since 2012 and has proved highly reliable. The SCARFrl marker is expected to aid in the development of FCR-resistant lines via marker-assisted selection (MAS). © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Bayram S.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute BATEM | Alper Arslan M.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute BATEM | Turgutoglu E.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute BATEM | Erkan M.,Akdeniz University
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

The cultivation and production of avocado has been increasing rapidly in the Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey in recent years. Adaptation studies of avocado in Turkey began in the early 1970's with the introduction of 'Fuerte', 'Hass', 'Bacon' and 'Zutano' cultivars. In the 1980's, 38 new cultivars were subsequently brought from California and Corsica, increasing the number of cultivars available for trial to 42. Trees were established for evaluation in Serik, Antalya between 1989-1991. In 1997, tree and fruit characteristics, flowering and harvest date and yield were assessed and 12 cultivars were eliminated from the study. Evaluations continued with thirty cultivars until 2004 when the studies were concluded. Experiment results showed that 'Hass', 'Fuerte', 'Bacon', 'Ettinger' and 'Zutano' avocado cultivars can be grown commercially in subtropical conditions in Antalya, Turkey. Source

Baysal O.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute BATEM | Siragusa M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Gumrukcu E.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute BATEM | Zengin S.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute BATEM | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical Genetics

Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae is a major soil-borne pathogen of eggplant (Solanum melongena). ISSR and RAPD markers were used to characterize Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae isolates collected from eggplant fields in southern Turkey. Those isolates were not pathogenic to tomato. Pathogens were identified by their morphology, and their identity was confirmed by PCR amplification using the specific primer PF02-3. The isolates were classified into groups on the basis of ISSR and RAPD fingerprints, which showed a level of genetic specificity and diversity not previously identified in Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae, suggesting that genetic differences are related to the pathogen in the Mediterranean region. The primers selected to characterize Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae may be used to determine genetic differences and pathogen virulence. This study is the first to characterize eggplant F. oxysporum species using ISSR and RAPD. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source

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