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Rameshwaran P.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Tepe A.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute | Yazar A.,Cukurova University | Ragab R.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2015

The present study investigates the impact of using saline water on pepper crop yield and the application of a numerical model in predicting soil moisture and relative yield under saline irrigation conditions. In the greenhouse experimental study conducted in Antalya, Turkey, the effects of different irrigation regimes with salinity treatments using a drip irrigation system were investigated for two pepper varieties. The irrigation regimes consisted of four irrigation treatments with four salinity levels in two cropping seasons-spring 2011 and autumn 2011. The numerical model SALTMED was used and calibrated using measured soil moisture of a control experiment run during spring 2011. After the calibration, the model was validated using other experimental treatments during spring 2011 and all the experimental treatments in autumn 2011, with appropriate salinity stress parameter π50 values which are calibrated versus the highest salinity treatments in the spring 2011 and autumn 2011 experiments. The predicted results show the ability of the model to reproduce the measured soil moisture at three soil layers 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60cm. The predicted relative yield results are in good agreement with measured data. Although the numerical model SALTMED has been used in several studies in the past, this is the first study that illustrates the potential capacity of the model for use in managing greenhouse production. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Rameshwaran P.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Tepe A.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute | Yazar A.,Cukurova University | Ragab R.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate the response of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to saline irrigation water and various irrigation regimes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with two sweet pepper varieties (ONUR F1 and ADA F1) over two cropping seasons: spring and autumn on the Mediterranean coast at Antalya, Turkey. The irrigation regimes comprised four levels of Class A pan-evaporation and were applied using a drip irrigation system when evaporation reached a target value of around 10mm. These four levels represented 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 of Class A pan-evaporation. In each irrigation regime the sweet pepper plants were exposed to four salinity treatments with electrical conductivities of 1.0, 2.5, 3.5 and 6.0dSm-1 respectively. The study showed that both pepper varieties generally performed in a similar manner (except in terms of vegetative biomass production). The amount of salt accumulation within the root-zone was higher in spring compared to autumn; and therefore related to the total amount of irrigated water usage between seasons due to climatic variability. Increased salinity induced higher levels of salt accumulation within the pepper plant's root-zone, while an increased amount of saline irrigation water increased the size of the affected layer within the root-zone. Overall, an increased level of salinity alongside increased irrigation considerably depressed both vegetative growth and yield. Higher irrigation water productivities were attained with a regime comprising 0.50 of Class A pan-evaporation and which appeared to fulfil crop water requirements. It was found that sweet pepper varieties ONUR F1 and ADA F1 are moderately sensitive to salinity with a threshold value of 1.43dSm-1 and a decreasing slope value of 11.1%. Although both seasons revealed a single salinity response function, there were considerable differences in the actual fresh pepper yield. This study demonstrates that for pepper crops irrigated with saline water (or grown on salt-affected soils), pepper growers must consider the salinity response function and seasonal productivity alongside an appropriate irrigation regime. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dincer C.,Akdeniz University | Topuz A.,Akdeniz University | Sahin-Nadeem H.,Akdeniz University | Ozdemir K.S.,Hacettepe University | And 5 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2012

In the present study, the main quality parameters such as moisture content, extract yields, total essential oils, phenolic content and composition, and antioxidant activity of wild and cultivated Salvia fruticosa were elaborately investigated in six-month storage period for two consecutive years. The cultivated samples had higher total phenolic content than those of the wild samples. On the contrary, wild samples had higher extract yields, total flavonoids and total essential oils. Seventeen different phenolic compounds, composed of seven phenolic acids and ten flavonoids, were identified and quantified in both cultivated and wild S. fruticosa. Rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids were determined to be the principal phenolic acids. The major flavonoids however were myricetin, morin and luteolin. The phenolic components of vanillic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, myricetin and morin increased, whereas caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin, luteolin and apigenin decreased by cultivation. The phenolic components were found to be either lower or not changed in consecutive harvesting year. They also did not significantly change during the storage period. The antioxidant activity of the samples was found to be higher for the second harvesting year whereas there were no significant differences between wild and cultivated S. fruticosa during storage period. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of drying methods, packaging atmosphere, and storage time in preserving the quality of dried pomegranate aril on total phenolic matter, total anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, and CIE L, a*, b*, C, h colour values. The highest contents of phenolic matter (5580 mg kg-1), anthocyanin (679.76 mg kg-1), antioxidant capacity (IC50, 26.16 mg g-1) and CIE a* colour value (10.73) were observed in freeze dried sample, followed by vacuum, convective, and sun dried samples in descending order. Phenolic matter, anthocyanin, antioxidant capacity (1/IC50) and CIE a*, b*, C colour values of the samples packed under nitrogen gas were higher than those packed under air atmosphere. Significant changes in the quality parameters of the product were examined during storage, and the highest loss was determined in anthocyanin content among analyzed quality parameters. The result of present study indicated that freeze drying was the best method for dried pomegranate aril production. © Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi. Source

Furat S.,West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute | Uzun B.,Akdeniz University
Plant OMICS | Year: 2010

Agro-morphological variation in the sesame germplasm was estimated using 21 morphologic and agronomic descriptors to characterize and identify genetic diversity. A total of 103 sesame landraces were collected from the sesame growing areas throughout Turkey. This collection was evaluated for seed yield, yield related characters and morphological characters in the two consecutive years (2004 and 2005). A great amount of variation was recorded for 17 morphologic and agronomic traits while four characters were found to be monomorphic as the plants with branching, white with pink shading flower color, shattering and indeterminate growth habit. Multivariate analyses were performed in order to establish similarity and dissimilarity patterns. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that first three PC axes explained 43.4% of the total multivariate variation while the first seven PC axes explaining 69.9%. The developmental characters such as days to emergence, flowering and capsule initiation and seed yield were the major determinants of the genetic diversity in the collection. Cluster analysis identified eight main clusters based on agro-morphological characters indicating the diversity could mainly be attributed to diverse agro-climatic conditions. Single plant selection was made from these populations based on different agronomic characteristics and yield potential. These results have an important implication for sesame germplasm characterization, improvement, agro-morphological evaluation and conservation. Source

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