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West German, Germany

Background: Randomized trials have demonstrated that locoregional radiation after mastectomy reduces locoregional recurrence and improves overall survival (OS) in women with node positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant systemic therapy. MA.20 evaluated the addition of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) to whole breast irradiation (WBI) following breast conserving surgery (BCS). Methods: Women with high risk node-negative or node-positive breast cancer treated with BCS and adjuvant chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy were stratified by positive nodes, axillary nodes removed, chemo- and endocrine therapy and randomized to WBI (50Gy in 25 fractions +/- boost irradiation) or WBI plus RNI (45Gy in 25 fractions) to the internal mammary, supraclavicular, and high axillary lymph nodes. The primary outcome was OS. The Data Safety Monitoring Committee approved the analysis plan for the protocol specified interim analysis of relapse patterns, survival and toxicity at 5 years. Upon review of the data, they recommended release of the results. Results: Between March 2000 to March 2007, 1,832 women were randomly assigned to WBI+RNI (916) or WBI (916). Median follow-up was 62 months. Characteristics of the study population were: mean age, 53.3 years; node negative, 10%; 1-3 positive nodes, 85%; > 4 positive nodes, 5%; adjuvant chemotherapy, 91%; and adjuvant endocrine therapy, 71%. WBI+RNI in comparison to WBI alone was associated with an improvement in isolated locoregional disease free survival (DFS; HR = .59, p = .02, 5 year risk: 96.8% and 94.5% respectively), distant DFS (HR = .64, p = .002, 5 year risk: 92.4% and 87.0% respectively), DFS (HR = .68, p = .003, 5 year risk: 89.7% and 84.0% respectively) and OS (HR = .76, p = .07, 5 year risk: 92.3% and 90.7% respectively). WBI+RNI in comparison to WBI was associated with an increase in grade 2 or greater pneumonitis (1.3% and 0.2% respectively, p = .01), and lymphedema (7.3% and 4.1% respectively, p = .004). Conclusions: The majority of women with node positive breast cancer are now managed by BCS followed by WBI and adjuvant systemic therapy. Results from MA.20 demonstrate that additional RNI reduces the risk of locoregional and distant recurrence, and improves DFS with a trend in improved OS. © 2011 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Source

Rutgers E.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Piccart-Gebhart M.J.,Institute Jules Bordet | Bogaerts J.,European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer | Delaloge S.,Institute Gustave Roussy | And 12 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: The MINDACT (Microarray In Node-negative and 1-3 node positive Disease may Avoid ChemoTherapy) trial investigates the clinical utility of the 70-gene profile (MammaPrint) for the selection of breast cancer patients for adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) together with standard clinicopathological criteria. We present the results of the pilot phase consisting of first 800 patients included. Methods: MINDACT has enrolled 6600 patients, classified into high or low risk by MammaPrint and clinicopathological risk through Adjuvant! Online. Patients with both clinical (C) and genomic (G) high risks are offered adjuvant CT; those with both C and G low risks do not receive CT; patients with discordant risk are randomised for the decision of adjuvant CT based on C or G risk. CT randomisation of anthracycline-based versus docetaxel/capecitabine and endocrine therapy randomisation between letrozole and tamoxifen → letrozole are offered. Results: During the pilot phase 46% of screened patients were enrolled. Main reasons for non-enrolment were node positivity before trial amendment, sample quality problems and failure to meet logistic settings. Among the 800 patients, 386 (48%) were C-low/G-low, 198 (24.8%) as C-high/G-high, 75 (9.4%) as C-low/G-high and 141 (17.6%) as C-high/G-low. In total 216 (27%) cases were discordant. The difference between patients with C-high (42%) and G-high risk (34%) is 8.25% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.7-11.8%; P <.0001). Compliance with the treatment decision was high (>92%). Conclusions: The logistically complex MINDACT trial is feasible in a multinational setting. The proportion of discordant patients, the potential reduction in CT by using the genomic signature and compliance to treatment assignment are in accordance with the trial hypotheses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Berry D.A.,Anderson University, South Carolina | Ueno N.T.,Anderson University, South Carolina | Johnson M.M.,Anderson University, South Carolina | Lei X.,Anderson University, South Carolina | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Purpose: Adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHST) for high-risk primary breast cancer has not been shown to prolong survival. Individual trials have had limited power to show overall benefit or benefits within subsets. Methods: We assembled individual patient data from 15 randomized trials that compared HDC versus control therapy without stem-cell support. Prospectively defined primary end points were relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). We compared the effect of HDC versus control by using log-rank tests and proportional hazards regression, and we adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. Subset analyses were by age, number of positive lymph nodes, tumor size, histology, hormone receptor (HmR) status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Results: Of 6,210 total patients (n = 3,118, HDC; n = 3,092 control), the median age was 46 years; 69% were premenopausal, 29% were postmenopausal, and 2% were unknown menopausal status; 49.5% were HmR positive; 33.5% were HmR negative, and 17% were unknown HmR status. The median follow-up was 6 years. After analysis was adjusted for covariates, HDC was found to prolong relapse-free survival (RFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.93; P < .001) but not overall survival (OS; HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.02; P = .13). For OS, no covariates had statistically significant interactions with treatment effect, and no subsets evinced a significant effect of HDC. Younger patients had a significantly better RFS on HDC than did older patients. Conclusion: Adjuvant HDC with AHST prolonged RFS in high-risk primary breast cancer compared with control, but this did not translate into a significant OS benefit. Whether HDC benefits patients in the context of targeted therapies is unknown. © 2011 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source

Gluz O.,West German Study Group | Wild P.,University of Regensburg | Wild P.,University of Zurich | Liedtke C.,West German Study Group | And 17 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

The goal of this analysis was to characterize the survival impact of angiogenesis in the patients with high-risk breast cancer, particularly the predictive impact on benefit from dose intensification of adjuvant chemotherapy. Formalin-fixed tissue sample of 152 patients treated as part of the WSG AM-01 trial by either high-dose or conventional dose-dense chemotherapy were analyzed. Angiogenic activity was measured using microvessel count and vascular surface area (VSA) determined by the expression of vascular markers CD31 (n = 128) and CD105/endoglin (n = 130). Protein molecular breast cancer subclasses were analyzed by k-means clustering (k = 5). The univariate impact of factors on event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was tested by log-rank statistics and quantified by univariate Cox analysis. Multivariate survival analysis included factors significant in univariate analysis, as well as interactions was performed for EFS. Both VSA/CD31 (P = 0.004) and VSA/CD105 (P = 0.003) were significantly higher among cases with increased Ki-67. A significant association with molecular subtypes was also found for VSA/CD105: in patients with basal-like/Her-2 subtypes, mean was 1.72 versus 1.24 in patients with other subtypes (P < 0.001). Elevated VSA/CD105 was associated with both significantly decreased EFS (P = 0.01) and OS (P = 0.02). Increased tumor size and positive Her-2 status were also prognostic for poorer EFS. The benefit of dose intensification for EFS was seen in those low-VSA/CD105 patients. The result was evident both in univariate and in multivariate survival analysis including all factors that were significant at the univariate level. Expression of angiogenesis markers may mirror or confer resistance to chemotherapy in the patients with breast cancer, particularly within the context of dose intensified chemotherapy. Highly angiogenic tumors may not derive sufficient benefit from dose intensification of chemotherapy alone. Our findings may serve as a rationale for further exploring antiangiogenic treatment options in the patients with such highly angiogenic tumor subtypes. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010. Source

Nitz U.,Breast Center Niederrhein | Nitz U.,West German Study Group | Gluz O.,Breast Center Niederrhein | Gluz O.,West German Study Group | And 15 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: WSG-ARA plus trial evaluated the effect of adjuvant darbepoetin alfa (DA) on outcome in node positive primary breast cancer (BC). Patients and methods: One thousand two hundred thirty-four patients were randomized to chemotherapy either with DA (DA+; n = 615) or without DA (DA-; n = 619). DA (500μg q3w) was started at hemoglobin (Hb) levels <13.0g/dl (<12g/dl after DA label amendment) and stopped at Hb levels ≥14.0g/dl (12g/dl after label amendment). Primary efficacy end point was event-free survival (EFS); secondary end points were toxicity, quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). Results: Venous thrombosis (DA+: 3.0%, DA-: 1.0%; P = 0.013) was significantly higher for DA+, but not pulmonary embolism (0.3% in both arms). Median Hb levels were stable in DA+ (12.6g/dl) and decreased in DA- (11.7g/dl). Hb levels >15g/dl were reported in 0.8% of cycles. QoL parameters did not significantly differ between arms. At 39 months, DA had no significant impact on EFS (DA+: 89.3%, DA-: 87.5%; Plog-rank = 0.55) or OS (DA+: 95.5%, DA-: 95.4%; Plog-rank = 0.77). Conclusions: DA treatment did not impact EFS or OS in routine adjuvant BC treatment. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

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