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Aaldriks A.A.,Institute of Mental Health | Maartense E.,Reinier Of Graaf Hospital | le Cessie S.,Leiden University | Giltay E.J.,Leiden University | And 5 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2011

Introduction: Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) gives useful information on the functional status of older cancer patients. However, its meaning for a proper selection of elderly patients before chemotherapy and, even more important, the influence of chemotherapy on the outcome of geriatric assessment is unknown. Methods: 202 cancer patients, for whom an indication for chemotherapy was made by the medical oncologist, underwent a GA before start of chemotherapy by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE), Groningen Frailty Index (GFI) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). After completion of a minimum of four cycles of chemotherapy or at 6 months after the start of chemotherapy the GFI and MMSE assessment was repeated. Results: Frailty was shown in 10% of patients by means of MMSE, 32% by MNA, 37% by GFI and in 15% by IQCODE. Compared to patients who received 4 or more cycles of chemotherapy, the MNA and MMSE scores were significantly lower for patients treated with less than 4 cycles (p=0.001 and p=0.04 respectively). The mortality rate after start of chemotherapy was increased for patients with low MNA and high GFI scores with hazard ratios of 2.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-3.39; p<0.001) and 1.80 (95% CI: 1.17-2.78; p=0.007), respectively. After adjusting for sex, age, purpose of chemotherapy and type of malignancy these hazard ratios remained significant (p<0.001 and p=0.004), respectively. Finally, for the 51 patients who underwent repeated post-chemotherapy evaluation by GFI and MMSE, a statistically significant deterioration for the MMSE (p=0.041) was found but not for the GFI. Conclusions: Both inferior MNA and MMSE scores increased the probability not to complete chemotherapy. Also, an inferior score for MNA and GFI showed an increased mortality risk after the start of chemotherapy. The mean MMSE score worsened significantly during chemotherapy. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Heijnen B.J.,Leiden University | Speyer R.,HAN University of Applied Sciences | Baijens L.W.J.,Maastricht University | Bogaardt H.C.A.,Comprehensive Cancer Center West
Dysphagia | Year: 2012

This study compares the effects of traditional logopedic dysphagia treatment with those of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as adjunct to therapy on the quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease and oropharyngeal dysphagia. Eighty-eight patients were randomized over three treatment groups. Traditional logopedic dysphagia treatment and traditional logopedic dysphagia treatment combined with NMES at sensor or motor level stimulation were compared. At three times (pretreatment, post-treatment, and 3 months following treatment), two quality-of-life questionnaires (SWAL-QOL and MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory) and a single-item Dysphagia Severity Scale were scored. The Functional Oral Intake Scale was used to assess the dietary intake. After therapy, all groups showed significant improvement on the Dysphagia Severity Scale and restricted positive effects on quality of life. Minimal group differences were found. These effects remained unchanged 3 months following treatment. No significant correlations were found between dietary intake and quality of life. Logopedic dysphagia treatment results in a restricted increased quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. In this randomized controlled trial, all groups showed significant therapy effects on the Dysphagia Severity Scale and restricted improvements on the SWAL-QOL and the MDADI. However, only slight nonsignificant differences between groups were found. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Gooiker G.A.,Leiden University | Van Der Geest L.G.M.,Comprehensive Cancer Center West | Wouters M.W.J.M.,Leiden University | Vonk M.,Leiden University | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2011

Background. Centralization of pancreatic surgery in highvolume hospitals is under debate in many countries. In the western part of the Netherlands, the professional network of surgical oncologists agreed to centralize all pancreatic surgery from 2006 in two high-volume hospitals. Our aim is to evaluate whether centralization of pancreatic surgery has improved clinical outcomes and has changed referral patterns. Materials and Methods. Data of the Comprehensive Cancer Centre West (CCCW) of all 249 patients who had a resection for suspected pancreatic cancer between 1996 and 2008 in the western part of the Netherlands were analyzed. Multivariable modeling was used to evaluate survival for 3 time periods; 1996-2000, 2001-2005 (introduction of quality standards), and 2006-2008 (after centralization). In addition, the differences in referral pattern were analyzed. Results. From 2006, all pancreatic surgery was centralized in 2 hospitals. The 2-year survival rate increased after centralization from 39% to 55% (P = .09) for all patients who had a pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer. After adjustment for age, tumor location, stage, histology, and adjuvant treatment, the latter period was significantly associated with improved survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.50; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.34-0.73). Conclusions. Centralization of pancreatic surgery was successful and has resulted in improved clinical outcomes in the western part of the Netherlands, demonstrating the effectiveness of centralization. © The Author(s) 2011.


Speyer R.,Maastricht University | Speyer R.,Comprehensive Cancer Center West | Baijens L.,Maastricht University | Heijnen M.,Maastricht University | Zwijnenberg I.,Maastricht University
Dysphagia | Year: 2010

Medical and paramedical treatments should be evaluated according to current standards of evidence-based medicine. Evaluation of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia fits into this growing interest. A systematic review is given of the literature on the effects of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia carried out by speech therapists. Thus, the review excludes reports of surgical or pharmacological treatments. The literature search was performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Embase. All available inclusion dates up to November 2008 were used. The search was limited to English, German, French, Spanish, and Dutch publications. MESH terms were supplemented by using free-text words (for the period after January 2005). Fifty-nine studies were included. In general, statistically significant positive therapy effects were found. However, the number of papers was rather small. Moreover, diverse methodological problems were found in many of these studies. For most studies, the conclusions could not be generalized; comparison was hindered by the range of diagnoses, types of therapies, and evaluation techniques. Many questions remain about the effects of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia as performed by speech and language therapists. Although some positive significant outcome studies have been published, further research based on randomized controlled trials is needed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.


Van Der Kruis J.G.J.,Maastricht University | Baijens L.W.J.,Maastricht University | Speyer R.,Maastricht University | Speyer R.,Comprehensive Cancer Center West | Zwijnenberg I.,St Elisabeth Hospital
Dysphagia | Year: 2011

This systematic review explores studies using biomechanical analysis of hyoid bone displacement in videofluoroscopy of swallowing as a spatial outcome parameter to evaluate intervention effects. Two authors independently carried out the literature search using the electronic databases Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library. Differences in their search findings were settled by discussion. The search was limited to publications in the English, German, French, Spanish, or Dutch language. MeSH terms were used, supplemented by free-text words to identify the most recent publications. In addition, reference lists were searched by hand. Only studies using videofluoroscopy to evaluate the biomechanical effects of swallowing interventions in dysphagic subjects were included in the review. While the body of literature on measuring hyoid bone displacement in videofluoroscopy has grown, only 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of the 12 studies had methodological shortcomings. In general, the conclusions could not be compared across the studies because of their heterogeneous designs and outcome measures. Overall, several intervention effect studies reported significant results. In particular, bolus modification and swallowing maneuvers showed a greater range of hyoid bone displacement. In light of this review, further research on hyoid bone displacement as a spatial variable in welldefined patient populations using well-defined videofluoroscopic protocols to measure intervention effects is recommended. © 2010 The Author(s).


van Gijn W.,Leiden University | Krijnen P.,Comprehensive Cancer Center West | Lemmens V.E.P.P.,Comprehensive Cancer Center South | den Dulk M.,Haga Hospital | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2010

Background: In the Netherlands, the Total Mesorectal Excision (TME) surgical technique for rectal cancer was introduced together with pre-operative radiotherapy in a quality controlled manner within the framework of the TME trial (1996-1999). The aim of this study is to examine the effects of the structural changes in rectal cancer care on survival compared to colon cancer for patients treated before, during and after the TME trial. Method: We compared overall survival of all patients with curatively resected colon (n = 15,266) and rectal cancer (n = 5839) in the regions of Comprehensive Cancer Centres South and West between 1990 and 2005, adjusting for prognostic variables. Results: In the pre-trial period, rectal cancer had a significant lower survival compared to colon cancer (HR 1.248, P < 0.01). However, in the post-trial period, survival after rectal cancer was similar to colon cancer (HR 0.987, n.s.). Conclusion: Although survival improved significantly for both colon and rectal cancer in the last 15 years, the substantially worse results after rectal cancer have been eliminated. This study shows the lasting effects that structural surgical training and quality assurance can have on survival outcome. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bastiaannet E.,Leiden University | Liefers G.J.,Leiden University | De Craen A.J.M.,Leiden University | Kuppen P.J.K.,Leiden University | And 7 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in several parts of the world and the number of elderly patients is increasing. The aim of this study was to describe stage at diagnosis, treatment, and relative survival of elderly patients compared to younger patients in the Netherlands. Adult female patients with their first primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2005 were selected. Stage, treatment, and relative survival were described for young and elderly (≥65 years) patients and within the cohort of elderly patients according to 5-year age groups. Overall, 127,805 patients were included. Elderly breast cancer patients were diagnosed with a higher stage of disease. Moreover, within the elderly differences in stage were observed. Elderly underwent less surgery (99.2-41.2%); elderly received hormonal treatment as monotherapy more frequently (0.8-47.3%); and less adjuvant systemic treatment (79-53%). Elderly breast cancer patients with breast cancer had a decreased relative survival. Although relative survival was lower in the elderly, the percentage of patients who die of their breast cancer less than 50% above age 75. In conclusion, the relative survival for the elderly is lower as compared to their younger counterparts while the percentage of deaths due to other causes increases with age. This could indicate that the patient selection is poor and fit patients could suffer from "under treatment". In the future, specific geriatric screening tools are necessary to identify fit elderly patients who could receive more "aggressive" treatment while best supportive care should be given to frail elderly patients. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Dekker J.W.T.,Leiden University | Gooiker G.A.,Leiden University | Van Der Geest L.G.M.,Comprehensive Cancer Center West | Kolfschoten N.E.,Leiden University | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2012

Aims: Comorbidity affects outcomes after colorectal cancer surgery. However, it's importance in risk adjustment is unclear and different measures are being used. This study aims to assess its impact on post-operative outcomes. Methods: All 2204 patients who were operated on for stage I-III colorectal cancer in the Midwestern region of the Netherlands between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008 were analyzed. A multivariate two-step enter-model was used to evaluate the effect of the American Society of Anaesthesiologists Physical Status classification (ASA) score, the sum of diseased organ systems (SDOS), the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and a combination of specific comorbidities on 30-day mortality, surgical complications and a prolonged length of stay (LOS). For each retrieved model, and for a model without comorbidity, a ROC curve was made. Results: High ASA score, SDOS, CCI, pulmonary disease and previous malignancy were all strongly associated with 30-day mortality and a prolonged LOS. High ASA score and gastro-intestinal comorbidity were risk factors for surgical complications. Predictive values for all comorbidity measures were similar with regard to all adverse post-operative outcomes. Omitting comorbidity only had a marginal effect on the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: Irrespective of the measure used, comorbidity is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome after colorectal surgery. However, the importance of comorbidity in risk-adjustment models is limited. Probably the work and costs of data collection for auditing can be reduced, without compromising risk-adjustment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dekker J.W.T.,Leiden University | Van Den Broek C.B.M.,Leiden University | Bastiaannet E.,Leiden University | Van De Geest L.G.M.,Comprehensive Cancer Center West | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Elderly colorectal cancer patients have worse prognosis than younger patients. Age-related survival differences may be cancer or treatment related, but also due to death from other causes. This study aims to compare population-based survival data for young (<65 years), aged (65-74 years), and elderly (≥75 years) colorectal cancer patients. Methods: All patients operated for stage I-III colorectal cancer between 1991 and 2005 in the western region of The Netherlands were included. Crude survival, relative survival, and conditional relative survival curves, under the condition of surviving 1 year, were made for colon and rectal cancer patients separately. Furthermore, 30-day, 1-year, and 1-year excess mortality data were compared. Results: A total of 9,397 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients were included in this study. Crude survival curves showed clear survival differences between the age groups. These age-related differences were less prominent in relative survival and disappeared in conditional relative survival (CRS). Only in stage III disease did elderly patients have worse CRS than young patients. Furthermore, significant age-related differences in 30-day and 1-year excess mortality were found. Thirty-day mortality vastly underestimated 1-year mortality for all age groups. Conclusions: Elderly colorectal cancer patients who survive the first year have the same cancer-related survival as younger patients. Therefore, decreased survival in the elderly is mainly due to differences in early mortality. Treatment of elderly colorectal cancer patients should focus on perioperative care and the first postoperative year. © 2011 The Author(s).


Wisgerhof H.C.,Leiden University | van der Geest L.G.M.,Comprehensive Cancer Center West | de Fijter J.W.,Leiden University | Haasnoot G.W.,Leiden University | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2011

In a long-term cohort study, we calculated cancer incidences and survival rates after the development of these cancers in kidney-transplant recipients. The cancer incidences were compared with those in the general population. The occurrence of cancer was recorded in all patients who received kidney transplantation between 1966 and 2006. The median follow-up time was more than 9 years with a maximum of almost 40 years. Altogether 327 (17%) of 1906 patients developed cancer after transplantation: 142 (7%) had non-cutaneous malignancies; 178 (9%) cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas and 138 (7%) basal-cell carcinomas. The cumulative incidence of any cancer was 13%, 33% and 47% after 10, 20 and 30 years, respectively. The incidences of cancers of the oral cavity, stomach, female genital organs, kidney, thyroid gland, leukemias and lymphomas, and cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma were significantly increased with a highest standardized morbidity ratio of 40 for cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas. Survival rates after non-cutaneous malignancies were 57%, 43% and 36% and after non-melanocytic skin cancer 99%, 90% and 77% after 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. The increased incidence of non-cutaneous malignancies after kidney transplantation is associated with a high mortality. Prevention of cancer after kidney transplantation should be a major focus of future research. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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