Whitlow P.L.,Cleveland Clinic |
Feldman T.,University of Chicago |
Pedersen W.R.,Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation |
Lim D.S.,University of Virginia |
And 14 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2012
Objectives: The EVEREST II (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair) High Risk Study (HRS) assessed the safety and effectiveness of the MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) in patients with significant mitral regurgitation (MR) at high risk of surgical mortality rate. Background: Patients with severe MR (3 to 4+) at high risk of surgery may benefit from percutaneous mitral leaflet repair, a potentially safer approach to reduce MR. Methods: Patients with severe symptomatic MR and an estimated surgical mortality rate of ≥12% were enrolled. A comparator group of patients screened concurrently but not enrolled were identified retrospectively and consented to compare survival in patients treated by standard care. Results: Seventy-eight patients underwent the MitraClip procedure. Their mean age was 77 years, >50% had previous cardiac surgery, and 46 had functional MR and 32 degenerative MR. MitraClip devices were successfully placed in 96% of patients. Protocol-predicted surgical mortality rate in the HRS and concurrent comparator group was 18.2% and 17.4%, respectively, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons calculator estimated mortality rate was 14.2% and 14.9%, respectively. The 30-day procedure-related mortality rate was 7.7% in the HRS and 8.3% in the comparator group (p = NS). The 12-month survival rate was 76% in the HRS and 55% in the concurrent comparator group (p = 0.047). In surviving patients with matched baseline and 12-month data, 78% had an MR grade of ≤2+. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume improved from 172 ml to 140 ml and end-systolic volume improved from 82 ml to 73 ml (both p = 0.001). New York Heart Association functional class improved from III/IV at baseline in 89% to class I/II in 74% (p < 0.0001). Quality of life was improved (Short Form-36 physical component score increased from 32.1 to 36.1 [p = 0.014] and the mental component score from 45.5 to 48.7 [p = 0.065]) at 12 months. The annual rate of hospitalization for congestive heart failure in surviving patients with matched data decreased from 0.59 to 0.32 (p = 0.034). Conclusions: The MitraClip device reduced MR in a majority of patients deemed at high risk of surgery, resulting in improvement in clinical symptoms and significant left ventricular reverse remodeling over 12 months. (Pivotal Study of a Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair System [EVEREST II]; NCT00209274). © 2012 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Savee J.D.,Sandia National Laboratories |
Selby T.M.,Sandia National Laboratories |
Selby T.M.,West Bend |
Welz O.,Sandia National Laboratories |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2015
Soot formation in combustion is a complex process in which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to play a critical role. Recent works concluded that three consecutive additions of acetylene (C2H2) to propargyl (C3H3) create a facile route to the PAH indene (C9H8). However, the isomeric forms of C5H5 and C7H7 intermediates in this reaction sequence are not known. We directly investigate these intermediates using time- and isomer-resolved experiments. Both the resonance stabilized vinylpropargyl (vp-C5H5) and 2,4-cyclopentadienyl (c-C5H5) radical isomers of C5H5 are produced, with substantially different intensities at 800 K vs 1000 K. In agreement with literature master equation calculations, we find that c-C5H5 + C2H2 produces only the tropyl isomer of C7H7 (tp-C7H7) below 1000 K, and that tp-C7H7 + C2H2 terminates the reaction sequence yielding C9H8 (indene) + H. This work demonstrates a pathway for PAH formation that does not proceed through benzene. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
Keidl T.S.,West Bend |
Shah A.G.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee |
Friedman J.L.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee |
Kim D.-H.,Max Planck Institute Fr Gravitationsphysik |
And 3 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010
In this, the first of two companion papers, we present a method for finding the gravitational self-force in a modified radiation gauge for a particle moving on a geodesic in a Schwarzschild or Kerr spacetime. An extension of an earlier result by Wald is used to show the spin weight ±2 perturbed Weyl scalar (ψ0 or ψ4) determines the metric perturbation outside the particle up to a gauge transformation and an infinitesimal change in mass and angular momentum. A Hertz potential is used to construct the part of the retarded metric perturbation that involves no change in mass or angular momentum from ψ0 in a radiation gauge. The metric perturbation is completed by adding changes in the mass and angular momentum of the background spacetime outside the radial coordinate r0 of the particle in any convenient gauge. The resulting metric perturbation is singular only on the trajectory of the particle. A mode-sum method is then used to renormalize the self-force. Gralla shows that the renormalized self-force can be used to find the correction to a geodesic orbit in a gauge for which the leading, O(ρ⊃-1), term in the metric perturbation has spatial components even under a parity transformation orthogonal to the particle trajectory, and we verify that the metric perturbation in a radiation gauge satisfies that condition. We show that the singular behavior of the metric perturbation and the expression for the bare self-force have the same power-law behavior in L=ℓ+1/2 as in a Lorenz gauge (with different coefficients). We explicitly compute the singular Weyl scalar and its mode-sum decomposition to subleading order in L for a particle in circular orbit in a Schwarzschild geometry and obtain the renormalized field. Because the singular field can be defined as this mode sum, the coefficients of each angular harmonic in the sum must agree with the large L limit of the corresponding coefficients of the retarded field. One may therefore compute the singular field by numerically matching the retarded field to a power series in L. To check the accuracy of the numerical method, we analytically compute leading and subleading terms in the singular expansion of ψ0 and compare the numerical and analytic values of the renormalization constants, finding agreement to high precision. Details of the numerical computation of the perturbed metric, the self-force, and the quantity hαβuαuβ (gauge invariant under helically symmetric gauge transformations) are presented for this test case in the companion paper. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
Shah A.G.,Weizmann Institute of Science |
Shah A.G.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee |
Friedman J.L.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee |
Keidl T.S.,West Bend
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012
This is the first of two papers on computing the self-force in a radiation gauge for a particle of mass m moving in circular, equatorial orbit about a Kerr black hole. In the extreme-mass-ratio inspiral (EMRI) framework, with mode-sum renormalization, we compute the renormalized value of the quantity H12h αβuαuβ, gauge-invariant under gauge transformations generated by a helically symmetric gauge vector; here, h αβ is the metric perturbation, uα the particle's 4-velocity. We find the related order m correction to the particle's angular velocity at fixed renormalized redshift (and to its redshift at fixed angular velocity), each of which can be written in terms of H. The radiative part of the metric perturbation is constructed from a Hertz potential that is extracted from the Weyl scalar by an algebraic inversion T.S. Keidl, Phys. Rev. D 82, 124012 (2010). We then write the spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics as a sum over spin-weighted spherical harmonics Yms and use mode-sum renormalization to find the renormalization coefficients by matching a series in L=+1/2 to the large-L behavior of the expression for H. The nonradiative parts of the perturbed metric associated with changes in mass and angular momentum are calculated in the Kerr gauge. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Sebree J.A.,Purdue University |
Sebree J.A.,NASA |
Kidwell N.M.,Purdue University |
Selby T.M.,West Bend |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012
Conformer-specific, vibrationally resolved electronic spectroscopy of benzylallene (4-phenyl-1,2-butadiene) is presented along with a detailed analysis of the products formed via its ultraviolet photoexcitation. Benzylallene is the minor product of the recombination of benzyl and propargyl radicals. The mass-selective resonant two-photon ionization spectrum of benzylallene was recorded under jet-cooled conditions, with its S 0-S 1 origin at 37 483 cm -1. UV-UV holeburning spectroscopy was used to show that only one conformer was present in the expansion. Rotational band contour analysis provided rotational constants and transition dipole moment direction consistent with a conformation in which the allene side chain is in the anti position, pointing away from the phenyl ring. The photochemistry of benzylallene was studied in a pump-probe geometry in which photoexcitation occurred by counter-propagating the expansion with a photoexcitation laser. The laser was timed to interact with the gas pulse in a short tube that extended the collisional region of the expansion. The products were cooled during expansion of the gas mixture into vacuum, before being interrogated using mass-selective resonant two-photon ionization. The UV-vis spectra of the photochemical products were compared to literature spectra for identification. Several wavelengths were chosen for photoexcitation, ranging from the S 0-S 1 origin transition (266.79 nm) to 193 nm. Comparison of the product spectral intensities as a function of photoexcitation wavelength provides information on the wavelength dependence of the product yields. Photoexcitation at 266.79 nm yielded five products (benzyl radical, benzylallenyl radical, 1-phenyl-1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, and naphthalene), with naphthalene and benzylallenyl radicals dominant. At 193 nm, the benzylallenyl radical signal was greatly reduced in intensity, while three additional C 10H 8 isomeric products were observed. An extensive set of calculations of key stationary points on the ground state C 10H 10 and C 10H 9 potential energy surfaces were carried out at the DFT B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Mechanisms for formation of the observed products are proposed based on these potential energy surfaces, constrained by the results of cursory studies of the photochemistry of 1-phenyl-1,3-butadiene and 4-phenyl-1-butyne. A role for tunneling on the excited state surface in the formation of naphthalene is suggested by studies of partially deuterated benzylallene, which blocked naphthalene formation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
West Bend | Date: 2012-11-15
West Bend | Date: 2013-01-01
News Article | January 31, 2014
All of a sudden, everyone's a foodie. In the modern day culinary mess of sous-vide machines and high-end blenders, it's easy to forget the work-a-day slow cooker. But then at this year's Consumer Electronics Show, device-maker Belkin announced its plan to extend its Internet-connected WeMo product line to Jarden's small appliance lineup, including slow cooker staple CrockPot. We'll examine what it means to bring your slow cooker online when the Crock-Pot WeMo Smart Slow Cooker debuts this spring. For now, given that you might be using a more traditional model this weekend (and today also being the last day of Slow Cooker Month), it seems like a good time to consider the slow cooker's humble, delicious origins. In 1952, Wisconsin-based appliance manufacturer West Bend introduced a small, countertop appliance called the Electric Bean Pot. The original model featured a ceramic bean pot on top of a heating element, which cooked beans in much the same way as an electric range. It was a small step toward the slow-cooker we know it today, but not a huge departure from cooking beans on the stove. Was this the first ancestor of the slow-cooker as we know it today? Hardly. On May 21, 1936, Irving Naxon, a prolific inventor, applied for a patent for a cooking device that would not only be portable, but would provide solutions for many of the complaints issued about previous models, namely uneven heating. It was to be an integrated appliance, with the cooking vessel (the crock) housed inside a casing that also contained the heating element, allowing the heat to distribute more evenly. Naxon received the patent for this appliance in January 1940, but he credits his inspiration to his grandmother (nee Nachumsohn), who told him about a dish she made growing up in Lithuania -- cholent -- and how she would cook it after hours at a local bakery, using the fading heat of the bakery's oven to cook the dish overnight. By integrating the crock inside of the heating unit, Naxon captured that "low and slow" cooking process and made it accessible to the mid-20th century cook. Naxon brought his device, the Naxon Beanery, to market in the 1950's. In 1970, the Rival Manufacturing acquired Naxon and, in 1972, rebranded the Beanery as the Crock-Pot. The appliance retailed for about $25, a price that has held steady, even with inflation. Certainly, you can buy more expensive slow-cookers now, but you can also go to your local superstore and, depending on the brand or model, buy a slow cooker for $25, if not less. In its debut, the Crock-Pot came in such classic 1970s colors as copper, harvest gold, and avocado, and it also included its own Crock-Pot specific cookbook. The times, they are a'changin' It's hard to talk about most modern small appliances without talking about the cultural climate at the time of their inception. This is particularly the case with slow-cookers. Slow-cookers, namely Crock-Pots, enabled women to maintain some semblance of work-home balance in the post-War era, a feature that became increasingly attractive as women entered the American workforce. Women could work a full day and have a piping hot dinner ready for their families that required very little effort. It was an attractive concept then and, while the expectations are different and gender roles less concrete, the convenience still makes the slow cooker an attractive concept today. In fact, slow-cookers have become a staple of the single adult's kitchen as much as they ever were for a family. Convenience isn't the only thing that solidified the Crock-Pot's position in our kitchens, however. While the ability to make one-pot meal while you work is fantastic, the Crock-Pot's efficiency was a particular asset during the oil crisis of 1973 and the energy crisis of 1979. A Crock-Pot pulled about the same amount of energy as an incandescent lightbulb, far less than the electricity required to run a traditional electric oven for any substantial amount of time. So while women may have fallen in love with the Crock-pot for the convenience it afforded, America fell in love with it for the money it saved. For the Crock-Pot brand in particular, its sales went up and down through the 1970s. The company sold about 80,000 units in 1972, exploded to around 3.7 million units in 1975, and then tapered down to nearly 1.3 million units once copy-cats entered the market. At the market's peak, about 40 different companies were making some kind of slow cooker, but that also faded by the 1980s, perhaps coincidentally around the same time the microwave oven became popular. As of 2002, though, a Betty Crocker Kitchens study found that 80.6 percent of US homes owned a slow cooker. Making culinary strides Ownership of the Crock-Pot brand changed hands over the years. The Holmes Group bought Rival in 1999, and Holmes, itself owned by Berkshire Hathaway, was then sold off to Jarden in 2005. The product itself has of course changed in that time as well. One major innovation was the the removable crock, an improvement over the integrated crocks in the first models which were hard to clean. The removable crock also made your dish portable. Capitalizing further on this idea of dinner-to-go, many manufacturers have released models that include rubber seals and locking mechanisms that keep the lid sealed tightly onto the crock for spill-free transport. This made an already convenient appliance even more, as you could cook a meal and take it to your potluck in the same dish, saving you extra clean-up. Recently, Crock-Pot introduced a customizable slow cooker option that allows you to special order a unit with pictures of your family, dog, or favorite sports team plastered all over. This may be neat, but it's hardly the tech change we're hoping to see in the future. The brand has also released a lineup for those who entertain frequently or aren't so into the one-pot-meal idea -- the Hook-up Entertaining System. This system allows you to plug several Crock-Pots together to form a veritable conga line of slow cookers. The brand later introduced a self-stirring slow cooker, though this feature would only be helpful with certain applications and could be a real nuisance in others. They also have a model that uses what Crock-Pot calls "smart cooking" technology which enables you to pick your protein and set the time you would like for it to be done cooking. The Crock-Pot turns itself on automatically and will have your meal cooked and ready by your specified time. Other slow cooker brands such as Ninja or Hamilton Beach have imbued their slow cookers with features like built-in temperature probes and a wider range of cooking settings. So what's next? Of all the feature add-ons over time, bringing the slow cooker online might be the most surprising. The Crock-Pot WeMo Slow Cooker will likely be the first connected slow cooker when it comes to market this March. Whether it will be the last one with built-in Wi-Fi is the big question. Part of the appeal of slow-cooking is that it's basically hands-off once you get the ingredients in the crock. But once you can monitor other devices in your home remotely, maybe we'll come to expect that from everything. If connected devices ever do attain that ubiquity, Jarden and Belkin will have elevated the humble slow cooker to a leading technology experiment.
News Article | May 29, 2009
West Bend's 5-Quart Oblong Slow Cooker offers more options than many other crockpots. The size of the slow cooker makes it possible to put together dinner for a crowd just as easily as you might start a stew for just two. And if you lift the pot off the heating base, you can use the base as a small griddle, perfect for frying up a little more food to augment whatever's in the pot. The cooking pot is also multiuse: it's safe for use in the oven, freezer, refrigerator, or even on the stovetop. When you add in the thermal carrying case and a lid meant for travel, the Oblong Slow Cooker seems meant for cooking just about anything that will fit in a crockpot. The 5-Quart Oblong Slow Cooker has a nonstick interior, to keep cleanup as simple as cooking. In addition to its adjustable heating controls, the slow cooker has a Keep Warm setting, so your meals will be warm at least through second helpings. The Keep Warm setting keeps food at a safe temperature until you're ready to eat or store it. The Oblong Slow Cooker is $69.99. Another version is available without the thermal carrying case, priced at $59.99.