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Magalang U.J.,Ohio State University | Chen N.-H.,Critical Care and Sleep Medicine | Cistulli P.A.,University of Sydney | Fedson A.C.,University of Pennsylvania | And 7 more authors.
Sleep | Year: 2013

Study Objectives: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guidelines for polysomnography (PSG) scoring are increasingly being adopted worldwide, but the agreement among international centers in scoring respiratory events and sleep stages using these guidelines is unknown. We sought to determine the interrater agreement of PSG scoring among international sleep centers. Design: Prospective study of interrater agreement of PSG scoring. Setting: Nine center-members of the Sleep Apnea Genetics International Consortium (SAGIC). Measurements and Results: Fifteen previously recorded deidentified PSGs, in European Data Format, were scored by an experienced technologist at each site after they were imported into the locally used analysis software. Each 30-sec epoch was manually scored for sleep stage, arousals, apneas, and hypopneas using the AASM recommended criteria. The computer-derived oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was also recorded. The primary outcome for analysis was the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). The ICCs of the respiratory variables were: AHI = 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.98), total apneas = 0.77 (0.56-0.87), total hypopneas = 0.80 (0.66-0.91), and ODI = 0.97 (0.93-0.99). The kappa statistics for sleep stages were: wake = 0.78 (0.77-0.79), nonrapid eye movement = 0.77 (0.76-0.78), N1 = 0.31 (0.30-0.32), N2 = 0.60 (0.59-0.61), N3 = 0.67 (0.65-0.69), and rapid eye movement = 0.78 (0.77-0.79). The ICC of the arousal index was 0.68 (0.50-0.85). Conclusion: There is strong agreement in the scoring of respiratory events among the SAGIC centers. There is also substantial epoch-by-epoch agreement in scoring sleep variables. Our results suggest that centralized scoring of PSGs may not be necessary in future research collaboration among international sites where experienced, well-trained scorers are involved. Source

Bucks R.S.,University of Western Australia | Olaithe M.,University of Western Australia | Eastwood P.,University of Western Australia | Eastwood P.,West Australian Sleep Disorders Research Institute
Respirology | Year: 2013

Adult obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with cognitive dysfunction. While many review articles have attempted to summarize the evidence for this association, it remains difficult to determine which domains of cognition are affected by OSA. This is because of marked differences in the nature of these reviews (e.g. many are unsystematic) and the many different tasks and domains assessed. This paper addresses this issue by comparing the results of only systematic reviews or meta-analyses assessing the effects of OSA on cognition, the relationship between OSA severity and cognition, and/or the effects of treatment on cognition in OSA. Electronic databases and hand-searching were undertaken to select reviews that reported on these areas. We found 33 reviews; five reviews met predetermined, stringent selection criteria. The majority of reviews supported deficits in attention/vigilance, delayed long-term visual and verbal memory, visuospatial/constructional abilities, and executive function in individuals with OSA. There is also general agreement that language ability and psychomotor function are unaffected by OSA. Data are equivocal for the effects of OSA on working memory, short-term memory and global cognitive functioning. Attention/vigilance dysfunction appears to be associated with sleep fragmentation and global cognitive function with hypoxaemia. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment of OSA appears to improve executive dysfunction, delayed long-term verbal and visual memory, attention/vigilance and global cognitive functioning. In order to improve our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in OSA, future research should pay particular attention to participant characteristics, measures of disease severity and choice of neuropsychological tests. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Source

Langdon P.C.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital | Mulcahy K.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital | Shepherd K.L.,West Australian Sleep Disorders Research Institute | Shepherd K.L.,University of Western Australia | And 2 more authors.
Dysphagia | Year: 2012

Dysphagia has previously been reported in the inflammatory myopathies (IMs): inclusion body myositis (IBM), dermatomyositis (DM), and polymyositis (PM). Patients report coughing, choking, and bolus sticking in the pharynx. Myotomy has been the treatment of choice, with variable success reported. We sought to determine underlying causes of dysphagia in IM patients using instrumental evaluation. Eighteen subjects participated in the study: four withDM, six with PM, and eight with IBM. They underwent simultaneous videofluoroscopy and manometry, yielding 214 swallows for analysis regarding function of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), swallow initiation, hyolaryngeal excursion, and pharyngeal residue. Penetration and aspiration were also recorded. UES failed to relax in two participants. High incidence of pharyngeal dysphagia was noted; 72% of participants demonstrated abnormalities, including delayed swallow initiation (24%), decreased hyolaryngeal excursion (22%), pyriform residue (17%), and penetration (22%). Dysphagia in IM patients appears to be more due to impaired muscle contraction and reduced hyolaryngeal excursion than the often held belief of failed UES relaxation. The distinction between mechanisms causing patients' dysphagia should be examined, particularly if CP myotomy is being considered as it may be contraindicated for patients with normal UES relaxation. More studies investigating IM patients pre- and post-myotomy are needed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

Hillman D.R.,West Australian Sleep Disorders Research Institute | Platt P.R.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital | Eastwood P.R.,West Australian Sleep Disorders Research Institute | Eastwood P.R.,University of Western Australia
Anesthesiology Clinics | Year: 2010

Anesthesia and sleep both predispose to upper airway obstruction through state-induced reductions in pharyngeal dilator muscle activation and lung volume. The tendencies are related in patients with obstructive sleep apnea commonly presenting with difficulties in airway management in the perioperative period. This is a period of great potential vulnerability for such patients because of compromise of the arousal responses that protect against asphyxiation during natural sleep. Careful preoperative evaluation and insightful perioperative observation are likely to identify patients at risk. A significant proportion of patients will have previously undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea and anesthesiologists are well placed to identify this potential. Patients with known or suspected obstructive sleep apnea need careful postoperative management, particularly while consciousness and arousal responses are impaired. Specific follow-up of suspected cases is needed to ensure that the sleep-related component of the problem receives appropriate care. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Huang H.-C.C.,Canberra Hospital | Huang H.-C.C.,West Australian Sleep Disorders Research Institute | Hillman D.R.,West Australian Sleep Disorders Research Institute | McArdle N.,West Australian Sleep Disorders Research Institute | McArdle N.,University of Western Australia
Sleep | Year: 2012

Study Objectives: To investigate the factors associated with physiologic control of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a clinical series. To also assess the usefulness of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) data downloaded from the APAP device (Dev AHI). Design: Retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with OSA who underwent APAP titration (Autoset Spirit, ResMed, Bella Vista, New South Wales, Australia ) with simultaneous polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring in the sleep laboratory. Setting: Tertiary sleep clinic. Participants: There were 190 consecutive patients with OSA referred for APAP titration. Measurements and Results: There were 58% of patients who achieved optimal or good control of OSA (titration PSG AHI < 10, or at least 50% reduction in AHI if diagnostic AHI < 15/hr) during APAP titration. The independent predictors of titration PSG AHI were a history of cardiac disease and elevated central apnea and arousal indices during the diagnostic study. Although the median and interquartile range (IQR) AHI from the device (7.0, 3.9-11.6 events/hr) was only slightly less than the PSG AHI (7.8, 3.9-14.4 events/hr, P = 0.04) during titration, case-by-case agreement between the two measures was poor (chi-square < 0.001). Conclusion: In a clinical sample control of OSA during APAP titration is often poor, and close clinical follow-up is particularly needed in patients with a history of cardiac disease or with high arousal or central apnea indices on the diagnostic study. Device AHI does not reliably assess control during APAP titration, and PSG assessment may be required if clinical response to treatment is poor. The findings relate to the ResMed AutoSet device and may not apply to other devices. Source

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