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Salisbury, United Kingdom

Chassaing N.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Chassaing N.,University Paul Sabatier | Ragge N.,Wessex Regional Genetics Service | Ragge N.,Oxford Brookes University | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2013

PDAC syndrome [Pulmonary hypoplasia/agenesis, Diaphragmatic hernia/eventration, Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) and Cardiac Defect] is a condition associated with recessive mutations in the STRA6 gene in some of these patients. Recently, cases with isolated anophthalmia have been associated with STRA6 mutations. To determine the minimal findings associated with STRA6 mutations, we performed mutation analysis of the STRA6 gene in 28 cases with anophthalmia. In 7 of the cases the anophthalmia was isolated, in 14 cases it was associated with one of the major features included in PDAC and 7 had other abnormalities. Mutations were identified in two individuals: one with bilateral anophthalmia and some features included in PDAC, who was a compound heterozygote for a missense mutation and a large intragenic deletion, and the second case with all the major features of PDAC and who had a homozygous splicing mutation. This study suggests that STRA6 mutations are more likely to be identified in individuals with A/M and other abnormalities included in the PDAC spectrum, rather than in isolated A/M cases. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Bridge H.,University of Oxford | Ragge N.,Wessex Regional Genetics Service | Ragge N.,Oxford Brookes University | Jenkinson N.,University of Oxford | And 2 more authors.
Visual Neuroscience | Year: 2012

The interdependence of the development of the eye and oculomotor system during embryogenesis is currently unclear. The occurrence of clinical anophthalmia, where the globe fails to develop, permits us to study the effects this has on the development of the complex neuromuscular system controlling eye movements. In this study, we use very high-resolution T2-weighted imaging in five anophthalmic subjects to visualize the extraocular muscles and the cranial nerves that innervate them. The subjects differed in the presence or absence of the optic nerve, the abducens nerve, and the extraocular muscles, reflecting differences in the underlying disruption to the eye's morphogenetic pathway. The oculomotor nerve was present in all anophthalmic subjects and only slightly reduced in size compared to measurements in sighted controls. As might be expected, the presence of rudimentary eye-like structures in the socket appeared to correlate with development and persistence of the extraocular muscles in some cases. Our study supports in part the concept of an initial independence of muscle development, with its maintenance subject to the presence of these eye-like structures. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012. Source

Shah S.P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Shah S.P.,University College London | Taylor A.E.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Sowden J.C.,National Health Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To describe the clinical features of children with anophthalmos, microphthalmos, and typical coloboma (AMC). Design: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of the United Kingdom. Participants: A total of 135 children with AMC newly diagnosed over an 18-month period beginning in October 2006. Methods: Cases were identified using active surveillance through an established ophthalmic surveillance system. Eligible cases were followed up 6 months after first notification. Main Outcome Measures: Phenotypic characteristics, both ocular and systemic, clinical investigations, causes, and interventions. Results: A total of 210 eyes (of 135 children) were affected by AMC, of which 153 had isolated coloboma or coloboma with microphthalmos. The most common colobomatous anomaly was a chorioretinal defect present in 109 eyes (71.2%). Some 44% of children were bilaterally visually impaired. Systemic abnormalities were present in 59.7% of children, with craniofacial anomalies being the most common. Children with bilateral disease had a 2.7 times higher odds (95% confidence interval, 1.35.5, P = 0.006) of having systemic involvement than unilaterally affected children. Neurologic imaging was the most frequent investigation (58.5%) performed. Less than one third (30.3%) of the children with microphthalmos had ocular axial lengths measured. Eight children had confirmed genetic mutations. Approximately half (49.2%) of the children required ocular intervention. Conclusions: Colobomatous defects were the most common phenotype within this spectrum of anomalies in the United Kingdom. The high frequency of posterior segment colobomatous involvement means that a dilated fundal examination should be made in all cases. The significant visual and systemic morbidity in affected children underlines the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to management. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Source

Calton E.A.,University of Southampton | Temple I.K.,University of Southampton | Mackay D.J.G.,University of Southampton | Lever M.,Wessex Regional Genetics Service | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2013

Hepatoblastoma is a tumour of early childhood occurring in association with genetic syndromes including Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) which results from dominance of paternally-inherited genes on chromosome 11p15. We report a child without clinical BWS, neonatally diagnosed with focal congenital hyperinsulinism resulting from a paternally-inherited recessively-acting mutation of ABCC8 and pancreatic paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 11p15, who subsequently developed hepatoblastoma. Genetic testing showed UPD 11p15 in the pancreas and liver but not systemically, allowing the expression of mutated ABCC8 in both tissues. Infants with large or multifocal forms of focal congenital hyperinsulinism may be at risk of BWS-like tumours due to mosaic UPD despite negative whole-blood and buccal DNA testing and tumour surveillance should be considered for this minority. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

van Kogelenberg M.,University of Otago | Clark A.R.,Massey University | Jenkins Z.,University of Otago | Morgan T.,University of Otago | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

Abstract: Filamin A, the filamentous protein encoded by the X-linked gene FLNA, cross-links cytoskeletal actin into three-dimensional networks, facilitating its role as a signalling scaffold and a mechanosensor of extrinsic shear forces. Central to these functions is the ability of FLNA to form V-shaped homodimers through its C-terminal located filamin repeat 24. Additionally, many proteins that interact with FLNA have a binding site that includes the C-terminus of the protein. Here, a cohort of patients with mutations affecting this region of the protein is studied, with particular emphasis on the phenotype of male hemizygotes. Seven unrelated families are reported, with five exhibiting a typical female presentation of periventricular heterotopia (PH), a neuronal migration disorder typically caused by loss-of-function mutations in FLNA. One male presents with widespread PH consistent with previous male phenotypes attributable to hypomorphic mutations in FLNA. In stark contrast, two brothers are described with a mild PH presentation, due to a missense mutation (p.Gly2593Glu) inserting a large negatively charged amino acid into the hydrophobic dimerisation interface of FLNA. Co-immunoprecipitation, in vitro cross-linking studies and gel filtration chromatography all demonstrated that homodimerisation of isolated FLNA repeat 24 is abolished by this p.Gly2593Glu substitution but that extended FLNAGly2593Glu repeat 16–24 constructs exhibit dimerisation. These observations imply that other interactions apart from those mediated by the canonical repeat 24 dimerisation interface contribute to FLNA homodimerisation and that mutations affecting this region of the protein can have broad phenotypic effects. Key messages: • Mutations in the X-linked gene FLNA cause a spectrum of syndromes. • Genotype-phenotype correlations are emerging but still remain unclear. • C-term mutations can confer male lethality, survival or connective tissue defects. • Mutations leading to the latter affect filamin dimerisation. • This deficit is compensated for by remotely acting domains elsewhere in FLNA. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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