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Leen W.G.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Klepper J.,Childrens Hospital | Verbeek M.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Leferink M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 48 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2010

Glucose transporter-1 deficiency syndrome is caused by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene in the majority of patients and results in impaired glucose transport into the brain. From 2004-2008, 132 requests for mutational analysis of the SLC2A1 gene were studied by automated Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Mutations in the SLC2A1 gene were detected in 54 patients (41) and subsequently in three clinically affected family members. In these 57 patients we identified 49 different mutations, including six multiple exon deletions, six known mutations and 37 novel mutations (13 missense, five nonsense, 13 frame shift, four splice site and two translation initiation mutations). Clinical data were retrospectively collected from referring physicians by means of a questionnaire. Three different phenotypes were recognized: (i) the classical phenotype (84), subdivided into early-onset (<2 years) (65) and late-onset (18); (ii) a non-classical phenotype, with mental retardation and movement disorder, without epilepsy (15); and (iii) one adult case of glucose transporter-1 deficiency syndrome with minimal symptoms. Recognizing glucose transporter-1 deficiency syndrome is important, since a ketogenic diet was effective in most of the patients with epilepsy (86) and also reduced movement disorders in 48 of the patients with a classical phenotype and 71 of the patients with a non-classical phenotype. The average delay in diagnosing classical glucose transporter-1 deficiency syndrome was 6.6 years (range 1 month-16 years). Cerebrospinal fluid glucose was below 2.5 mmol/l (range 0.9-2.4 mmol/l) in all patients and cerebrospinal fluid: blood glucose ratio was below 0.50 in all but one patient (range 0.19-0.52). Cerebrospinal fluid lactate was low to normal in all patients. Our relatively large series of 57 patients with glucose transporter-1 deficiency syndrome allowed us to identify correlations between genotype, phenotype and biochemical data. Type of mutation was related to the severity of mental retardation and the presence of complex movement disorders. Cerebrospinal fluid: blood glucose ratio was related to type of mutation and phenotype. In conclusion, a substantial number of the patients with glucose transporter-1 deficiency syndrome do not have epilepsy. Our study demonstrates that a lumbar puncture provides the diagnostic clue to glucose transporter-1 deficiency syndrome and can thereby dramatically reduce diagnostic delay to allow early start of the ketogenic diet. © The Author 2010.


van Kogelenberg M.,University of Otago | Clark A.R.,Massey University | Jenkins Z.,University of Otago | Morgan T.,University of Otago | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

Abstract: Filamin A, the filamentous protein encoded by the X-linked gene FLNA, cross-links cytoskeletal actin into three-dimensional networks, facilitating its role as a signalling scaffold and a mechanosensor of extrinsic shear forces. Central to these functions is the ability of FLNA to form V-shaped homodimers through its C-terminal located filamin repeat 24. Additionally, many proteins that interact with FLNA have a binding site that includes the C-terminus of the protein. Here, a cohort of patients with mutations affecting this region of the protein is studied, with particular emphasis on the phenotype of male hemizygotes. Seven unrelated families are reported, with five exhibiting a typical female presentation of periventricular heterotopia (PH), a neuronal migration disorder typically caused by loss-of-function mutations in FLNA. One male presents with widespread PH consistent with previous male phenotypes attributable to hypomorphic mutations in FLNA. In stark contrast, two brothers are described with a mild PH presentation, due to a missense mutation (p.Gly2593Glu) inserting a large negatively charged amino acid into the hydrophobic dimerisation interface of FLNA. Co-immunoprecipitation, in vitro cross-linking studies and gel filtration chromatography all demonstrated that homodimerisation of isolated FLNA repeat 24 is abolished by this p.Gly2593Glu substitution but that extended FLNAGly2593Glu repeat 16–24 constructs exhibit dimerisation. These observations imply that other interactions apart from those mediated by the canonical repeat 24 dimerisation interface contribute to FLNA homodimerisation and that mutations affecting this region of the protein can have broad phenotypic effects. Key messages: • Mutations in the X-linked gene FLNA cause a spectrum of syndromes. • Genotype-phenotype correlations are emerging but still remain unclear. • C-term mutations can confer male lethality, survival or connective tissue defects. • Mutations leading to the latter affect filamin dimerisation. • This deficit is compensated for by remotely acting domains elsewhere in FLNA. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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