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Forsyth, GA, United States

Shea M.T.,Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Walsh Z.,University of British Columbia | Edelen M.O.,RAND Corporation | Hopwood C.J.,Michigan State University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Objective: We examined the predictive power of the self-harm subscale of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) to identify suicide attempters in the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (CLPS). Method: The SNAP, a self-report personality inventory, was administered to 733 CLPS participants at baseline, of whom 701 (96%) had at least 6 months of follow-up data. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to examine the SNAP-self-harm subscale (SNAP-SH) in predicting the 129 suicide attempters over 8 years of follow-up. Possible moderators of prediction were examined, including borderline personality disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), and substance use disorder. We also compared baseline administration of the SNAP-SH to subsequent administrations more proximal to the suicide attempt, and to a higher-order SNAP-negative temperament (SNAP-NT) subscale. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted using suicide attempts (n = 58) over the first year of follow-up to provide reference points for sensitivity and specificity. Results: The SNAP-SH demonstrated good predictive power for suicide attempts (hazard ratio = 1.28, P < .001) and appeared relatively consistent across borderline personality disorder, MDD, and substance use disorder diagnoses. Using more proximal scores did not increase predictive power. The SNAP-SH compared favorably to the predictive power of the higher-order SNAP-NT. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicate several cutoff scores on the SNAP-SH that yield moderate to high sensitivity and specificity for predicting suicide attempts over the first year of follow-up. Conclusions: The SNAP-SH may be a useful screening instrument for risk of suicide attempts in nonpsychotic psychiatric patients. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc. Source

Flaherty K.M.,University of Arizona | Muzerolle J.,US Space Telescope Science Institute | Rieke G.,University of Arizona | Gutermuth R.,Smith College | And 4 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

We describe extensive synoptic multi-wavelength observations of the transition disk LRLL 31 in the young cluster IC 348. We combined 4 epochs of IRS spectra, 9 epochs of MIPS photometry, 7 epochs of cold-mission IRAC photometry, and 36 epochs of warm-mission IRAC photometry along with multi-epoch near-infrared spectra, optical spectra, and polarimetry to explore the nature of the rapid variability of this object. We find that the inner disk, as traced by the 2-5 μm excess, stays at the dust sublimation radius while the strength of the excess changes by a factor of eight on weekly timescales, and the 3.6 and 4.5 μm photometry show a drop of 0.35 mag in 1week followed by a slow 0.5 mag increase over the next 3 weeks. The accretion rate, as measured by Paβ and Brγ emission lines, varies by a factor of five with evidence for a correlation between the accretion rate and the infrared excess. While the gas and dust in the inner disk are fluctuating, the central star stays relatively static. Our observations allow us to put constraints on the physical mechanism responsible for the variability. The variable accretion, and wind, are unlikely to be causes of the variability, but are both effects of the same physical process that disturbs the disk. The lack of periodicity in our infrared monitoring indicates that it is unlikely that there is a companion within ∼0.4 AU that is perturbing the disk. The most likely explanation is either a companion beyond ∼0.4 AU or a dynamic interface between the stellar magnetic field and the disk leading to a variable scale height and/or warping of the inner disk. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 576.53K | Year: 2011

The Student Preparation and Retention Collaborative (SPARC) is providing financial and programmatic support for two cohorts of 7 to 8 high achieving, socioeconomically disadvantaged women from rural and inner city schools in Georgia through four years of a Wesleyan College undergraduate major in Biology, Chemistry, or Mathematics. The need for SPARC is great in Georgia, where there is a disparity in high school mathematics and science achievement in terms of race and socioeconomic status. The current success of the college in recruiting and retaining a diverse student body provides an ideal environment to support SPARC Scholars. Since 1836, Wesleyan College has emphasized the importance of science as well as classical learning in the education of women. This history has paid modern benefits since over seventy-six percent of natural science and mathematics graduates pursue advanced degrees or are employed in mathematics or science-related occupations. Of these graduates, twenty-five percent are women of color.

Intellectual merit: Scholarship students receive the following: integrated academic support; faculty, peer and alumnae mentoring; summer academic boot camps; and early engagement in undergraduate research are being provided. As a result of these programs, it is anticipated that eighty percent of these scholars will graduate and ninety percent of these graduates will pursue advanced study or employment in STEM fields.

Broader Impact: The project is increasing the national diversity of women who graduate with degrees in Biology, Chemistry or Mathematics, informing the design of initiatives at other, larger institutions that have adopted smaller learning communities, and encouraging retention in mathematics and science fields. Boot camps are providing models for summer undergraduate academic preparation and helping students develop enthusiasm for and confidence in the study of math and science.

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Salk T.T.,University of Minnesota | Frelich L.E.,University of Minnesota | Sugita S.,University of Minnesota | Sugita S.,Tallinn University | And 3 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2011

Anthropogenic factors such as elevated deer populations, invasive earthworms or climate change may alter old-growth forests of the Upper Midwest region of the United States. We examined demographic trends of woody species across all size classes over 35 years in a late-successional forest dominated by hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) in Michigan's Upper Peninsula using two sets of permanent plots. For the duration of the study period, species that were less-preferred white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage, especially sugar maple, comprised a much higher fraction of all seedlings and saplings compared to overstory trees. The density of small sugar maple declined across the study period, but no other species became more abundant, creating a more open forest understory. By the most recent census, preferred species for deer browse had been nearly eliminated from the understory, and declines in unpreferred species such as sugar maple were also apparent. We found small changes in temperature (<0.5-1°C rise in minimum and maximum temperatures depending on season) and precipitation (±28. mm depending on season) and little evidence of invasive earthworms impacts. Our results suggest that the sustained elevated deer density is shifting the structure and composition of this old-growth forest. A demographic model showed that if current recruitment, growth and mortality rates were to continue for 500 years the forest would eventually reach a new equilibrium with virtually no hemlock or yellow birch remaining. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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