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Adedapo A.A.,Wesley University of Science and Technology | Ofuegbe S.O.,University of Ibadan
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Background: Phyllanthus amarus has been used in traditional medicine in Nigeria to treat some disease conditions. This study evaluated the soft drink extract (SDE) of the plant for antidiabetic activities in rats. Methods: Standard phytochemical methods were used to test for the presence of phytoactive compounds in the plant. Acute toxicity was carried out in mice to determine safe doses for this plant extract. The antidiabetic activities of the SDE of the plant were assessed using some standard tests as well as histological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats using alloxan, whereas glibenclamide at 0.2 mg/kg was the reference drug used in this study. Results: The SDE at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight caused a significant reduction of fasting blood glucose, a significant change in the oral glucose tolerance test, a marked effect in the hypoglycemic activity test, and a pronounced reduction in the glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels of diabetic rats. Histopathologically, the liver of the diabetic nontreated and glibenclamidetreated groups showed widespread vacuolar change in the hepatocytes, but there was no visible lesion seen in the kidney and pancreas of extract-treated and glibenclamide- Treated groups. No lesion was also seen in the liver of the SDE-treated group. Conclusions: The results from this study may have validated the traditional basis for the use of P. amarus as antidiabetic agent with the pharmacological activities attributed to the presence of flavonoids and other phenolics contained in this plant. At the doses used, SDE also appeared safer than glibenclamide even though the latter is more potent. Source

Igwe O.,University of Nigeria | Adepehin E.J.,University of Nigeria | Adepehin E.J.,Wesley University of Science and Technology | Adepehin J.O.,Federal University of Technology Akurre
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

The Enyigba metallogenic province resides in the Lower part of the NE–SW trending Benue trough of Nigeria. Galena and Sphalerite occur in this basin and have attracted miners for over five decades. The non-conformity of miners to existing mining laws in the country has impacted the region negatively. This study examines the quality of water in the region, with the aim of ascertaining how much the unregulated mining operations have imparted it. Water samples were collected across four communities and subjected to hydrogeochemical and microbiological analyses. The presence of potential toxic elements (PTEs) in virtually all samples indicates some levels of contamination. Although, recorded PTEs fall considerably below WHO (Water quality assessments—a guide to use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring 2011) limits. The occurrence of Pb (≤0.008 mg L−1 in rivers), Zn (≤0.048 mg L−1 in hand-dug wells) and Se (≤0.002 mg L−1 in rivers) calls for national attention, bearing in mind that this metals have long time cumulative effects on humans. The existence of Zn (≤0.011 mg L−1) and Se (≤0.002 mg L−1) in some analysed borehole samples revealed that not all the boreholes in the region are potable. The samples are rendered unsafe owing to the occurrence of pathogenic organisms with heavy microbial loads in them. Records of reasonable concentrations of PTEs in the water samples, strongly suggest negative impacts of mining on water quality in the area. Going by the findings of the studies, the water sources in the Enyigba mining district are not potable in their untreated states. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Oladoja N.A.,Adekunle Ajasin University | Ololade I.A.,Adekunle Ajasin University | Adesina A.O.,Adekunle Ajasin University | Adelagun R.O.A.,Wesley University of Science and Technology | Sani Y.M.,Ahmadu Bello University
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2013

On the basis of the perspective of wastes recycling and minimization of cost of phosphate removal via the chemical precipitation procedure, the present studies evaluated the ability of waste biogenic Gastropod shell to serve as a source of Ca2+ ion in the removal and recovery of phosphate in calcium phosphate mineral (CPM) crystallization procedure. Phosphate removal efficiency values >99% was achieved when 2g of snail shell was used in water of phosphate concentrations ranging between 25 and 1000mg/L. pH and ionic strength exhibited no influence on the phosphate removal efficiency. Concomitant removal of phosphate and organic matter revealed that phosphate removal efficiency was not impacted but the magnitude of the organics removed increased with increase in the organic load. Kinetic analysis showed that second order kinetic model gave a better description of the process. XRD analysis of the derived sludge showed the crystallinity and peaks synonymous with the presence of whitlockite, hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate. The FTIR of the sludge showed the disappearance of some naturally occurring functional groups and the appearance of phosphate peaks which confirmed the formation of CPM. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Source

Fawole F.J.,Wesley University of Science and Technology | Sahu N.P.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Pal A.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Ravindran A.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2015

A 35 days feeding trial was conducted to assess the haemato-immunological response of Labeo rohita fingerlings fed ethanolic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Mangifera indica, and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Six iso-nitrogenous (354.6-361.6 g kg-1) purified diets were prepared with graded level of leaf extracts viz., control (basal feed without any extract); TG-5 (5 g kg-1 guava extract); TG-10 (10 g kg-1 guava extract); TM-5 (5 g kg-1 mango extract); TM-10 (10 g kg-1 mango extract); and TGM (5 g kg-1 guava extract +5 g kg-1 mango extract). Haematological, immunological, biochemical, along with antioxidant enzyme activities were examined after a 35 day-feeding trial and following a 7 day challenge with A. hydrophila. The haemoglobin, total leucocyte and erythrocyte counts, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme, total protein, albumin and globulin contents increased significantly (P < 0.05) in leaf extracts fed groups compared with the control in pre- and post-challenge conditions. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease was observed in SOD (superoxide dismutase) and catalase activities of the treatment groups compared with the higher value in control. The trends in mortality indicated that groups of fish showing significantly elevated haemato-immunological responses had the lowest mortality following challenge with A. hydrophila. The results showed that extracts of P. guajava and M. indica appear to be potential immunostimulant at an inclusion level of 5 g kg-1 in the diet of rohu. But, mixing of both the extract at similar level did not show any synergistic effect, which needs to be tested at its lower level of inclusion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Omoya F.O.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Kelly B.A.,Wesley University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science | Year: 2014

In this study, the effect of exposing entomopathogenic bacteria isolated from macerated termite cadavers to varying intensities of a magnetic field for different periods of time on their pathogenic potential was examined; pathogenicity tests were carried out for each of the bacterial species. Two of the bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn and Serratia marcescens Bizio, were able to induce morbid effects on termites and both were re-isolated from the resulting cadavers. Reinfection using different concentrations of both bacteria was carried out on termites to determine the minimum lethal concentration required for pathogenicity. Bacillus subtilis was able to degenerate the termites at concentration values of 108 colony-forming units (cfu)/ml and S. marcescens at 107cfu/ml. Both bacteria were then exposed to magnetic fields of different intensities for different periods of time, after which they were used for reinfection of healthy termites. Post-infection study after the exposure of termites to magnetic field-treated bacterial cells revealed no reduction in the entomopathogenic potency of S. marcescens. As the extensive use of chemicals to control insect pests has been found to have detrimental effects on people and the environment, there is a pressing need to discover and develop new entomopathogens to control these insects biologically. Therefore, bacteria discovered in this study to have entomopathogenic potency against termites may be further studied and formulated into either powdery forms or suspensions to be applied to infested wood or wood products. © icipe 2014. Source

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