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Stuttgart Mühlhausen, Germany

Philipp B.,TU Munich | Dieringer F.,Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH | Wuchner R.,TU Munich | Bletzinger K.-U.,TU Munich
Journal of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures

In the design of membrane structures, the integration of bending-active elements (rods) allows for interesting new designs. In classical form finding the stress-state is prescribed and equilibrium will be satisfied in the formfound geometry. In contrast, the stress-state of bending-active elements depends on their deformation. The opposing behaviors of these two types of members lead to the term "hybrid structures". A simulation technique for these hybrid structures is presented in this paper. The necessary equations for incorporating elastic members in the form-finding and analysis of membrane structures are presented, and methods of applying the results of form-finding to the structural analysis are discussed. The necessity of incorporating elastic members from the beginning of the design process is demonstrated with small-scale examples. Finally the simulation of a 29 m umbrella that is part of an ongoing research project is used to demonstrate the possibilities and limits of accurate simulation of membrane structures with integrated bending-active elements. Copyright © 2015 by Benedikt Philipp,. Source

At first sight, the newly built seven-storey hotel in Nagold, Germany, appears to be of only average complexity-that is at least from a structural point of view. However, as is often the case, the devil is in the detail. The extremely high number of support and load transfer measures required for this project place stringent demands on the structural design. The provision of supports for the bracing walls by means of elevation and the arrangement of the deep (cantilevered) beams are particularly worthy of mention. In view of the relatively small size of the building, the surprising level of complexity can be traced back to the fact that the structural design engineers were brought in at a very late stage of the planning process. The structural design engineers were not brought in until after the architectural competition, which envisaged a wide variety of different uses on the individual storeys, had been decided. The location in an earthquake zone and the extremely irregular geometry of the structure meant it was necessary to verify its structural safety utilizing the response spectrum method. Copyright © 2014 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin. Source

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