Wenshan City, China
Wenshan City, China

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Zu Y.-Q.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Mei X.-Y.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Min Q.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Su Y.,Kunming University | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2016

Field plot experiments were conducted to study the effect of two-year consecutive As stress [As(V): 0, 20, 80, 140, 200 and 260 mg·kg-1] on contents of As, saponin and flanovoids, the enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and squalene synthase (SS) in main root, fibrous root and rhizome and shoot, and proteome of three-year old Panax notoginseng in Wenshan prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The results showed that total saponin content of fibrous root decreased with increase in As treatment concentration. Total saponin contents of shoot and rhizome increased with 140 mg·kg-1 As treatment compared with control. SS activity of rhizome was higher than that of shoot. Flavonoid contents of different plant parts decreased with increase in As treatment concentration. With 140 mg·kg-1As treatment, activities of PAL and CHS in rhizome were higher than that in shoot. CHS activities in shoot and rhizome were lower, and PAL activities were higher than those of the control. As contents in different plant parts of P. notoginseng increased with increase in As treatment concentration. Thehighest As content was observed in fibrous root. With 140 mg·kg-1As treatment, twenty-one differential proteins (ratio >2, P<0.05) were identified in the inoculated compared to the control. The down-regulated proteins included phosphoribulokinase, heat shock protein, NAD(P)-binding rossmann-fold superfamily proteinisoform, monodehydroascorbate reductase and cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur subunit. The up-regulated proteins included CDC27 family protein, acidic endochitinase isoform, symbiosis receptor-like kinase precursor, isoflavone reductase-like protein, phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxyheptonate aldolase, putative protein kinase superfamily protein, malate dehydrogenase, glyoxalase I isoform and glutamine synthetase cytosolic isozyme. In general, with two-year consecutive As stress, As contents in different plant parts of P. notoginseng increased, which not only affected the photosynthesis and energy, but also decreased the antioxidation and resilience, and induced the increased expression of protein involved in detoxication, resulted in decrease in the contents of flavonoid and saponin. The tolerant threshold value of P. notoginseng for As was 140 mg·kg-1. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Zu Y.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Sun J.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Min Q.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Li Z.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology | Year: 2015

In order to improve production and guarantee quality of Panax notoginseng, this paper aimed to study the effects of As stress (As(V):0,20, 80, 140,200 and 260 mg kg-1) on the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) activities and contents of As and flanovoids in the main root, fibrous root and rhizome of two-year old P. notoginseng. Field experiments and lab analysis were conducted in Wenshan Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The results showed that: (1) The As and flavonoids contents in P. notoginseng were both as fibrous root > rhizome > main root. Significant positive relationships between the As content and As treatment concentration were observed. Significant negative relationships between flavonoids and As treatment concentration existed in plant growth stages. (2) The As content in different parts of P. notoginseng met the standard value (≤ 1.0 mg kg-1) for good quality P. notoginseng, except for that of fibrous root under As treatment concentration 80-260 mg kg-1. Flavonoids contents in different parts at flowering and mature stages were higher than in growing stage. Compared with the control (As 0 mg kg-1 treatment), flavonoids contents in rhizome, main root and fibrous root were 5.30-11.51%, 6.42-12.93% and 4.33-12.36%, respectively, lower under As 260 mg kg-1 treatment. (3) Under As 0-200 mg kg-1 treatment, no significant change of PAL and CHS activities in rhizome and main root was observed, with PAL activity decreased and CHS activity increased in fibrous roots. Activities of PAL and CHS in all parts decreased with As 260 mg kg-1 treatment. The results indicated that the responses of flavonoids in rhizome, main root and fibrous root to As stress depend on As concentration, growth stage and plant parts. The fibrous root is the most sensitive part to As stress. Flavonoids contents and activities of key metabolism enzyme are tolerant to As stress of ≤ 200 mg kg-1.

Wu J.,Zhejiang University | Wei H.,Zhejiang University | Sui X.,Zhejiang University | Lin J.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

To provide scientific information for GAP of P. notoginseng and guiding the farmers and enterprises of Chinese medicine, dynamics of carbendazim residue in the Chinese medicinal herb, P. notoginseng and cultivated soil was studied at Wenshan County in 2008. The half lives of carbendazim in P. notoginseng were 5.92-6.82 day (soil), 6.71-6.77 day (fresh leaf), 3.29-3.93 day (fresh root), and 31.50-36.67 day (powder of the dry root) separately. Carbendazim residues in P. notoginseng were more stable during storage stage than growing stage. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Yan X.-L.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Liao X.-Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Yu B.-B.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Zhang W.-B.,Wenshan Sanqi Research Institute
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2011

Panax notoginseng is a valued traditional Chinese medical herb. In this study, the arsenic (As) contamination of soil in P. notoginseng plantation area in Wenshan (Yunnan, China) was investigated; the absorption and accumulation of soil As by the P. notoginseng was revealed; and the associated health risk was evaluated. The results revealed that the soil As concentrations ranged between 6. 9-242. 0 mg· kg -1. Arsenic concentrations in 48% of the total soil samples were > 40 mg· kg -1. The As concentrations in 24% of main root samples, 81% of fibrous root samples, 14% of stem samples, 57% of leaf samples, and 44% of flower/fruit samples were greater than the regulation concentration of 2. 0 mg· kg -1. Arsenic accumulation in the main root increased with the soil As concentration at soil As concentrations < 100 mg· kg -1, but sharply decreased with the soil As concentration at soil As concentrations > 100 mg· kg -1. With increasing soil As concentration, the total biomass of P. notoginseng and the main root biomass decreased. Calculating with the As concentration in different parts of Sanqi P. notoginseng plants, percent of the average ingestion rates of As with ADI regulated by FAO/WHO showed fibrous root> leave> flower/fruit> main root> stem. Based on the As concentration in the main root, the daily As intake accounted for a mean fraction of 12. 83 % (maximum 45. 87 %) of the acceptable daily intake specified by FAO/WHO, and the ratio increased with the increasing of soil As concentration. Arsenic contamination of soil and P. notoginseng at the plantation area of Wenshan should not be neglected, and effective strategies should be adopt to reduce As accumulation in the plant and human health risk.

Yan X.L.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Lin L.Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Liao X.Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Zhang W.B.,Wenshan Sanqi Research Institute
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

Panax notoginseng, a traditional rare Chinese medicinal herb, was recently found to bring health risk to consumers, mainly because soil in its major plantation area was contaminated by arsenic (As). We investigated the effect of soil As pollution on the growth and As uptake of pot-cultured P. notoginseng, and the associated mechanisms of As stressed response. Results showed that, comparing with P. notoginseng growing in a low-As soil, the root, stem, and leaf biomasses of those growing in a high-As soil significantly reduced by 0.75, 0.09 and 0.21gseedling -1, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of the seedlings growing in high-As soil were 22, 15 and 3times higher than those growing in low-As soil, respectively. Regardless of the soil As concentration, As existed in plants mainly as As(III), suggesting that the reduction of As(V) is a key step in As metabolism. Arsenic was distributed primarily in cell walls (51.7% for plants growing in the low-As soil, and 51.5% in the high-As soil), followed by cytoplasm supernatant, with cell organelles containing the least As. Compared with plants growing in the low-As soil, those in the high-As soil had increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities in their roots, stems, and leaves, which would be associate with improving the resistance of P. notoginseng to As stress. The results suggest that there exists some special mechanisms of As-tolerance in P. notoginseng and the study is of significance in developing measures to reduce As in the herb. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Wenshan Sanqi Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2010

To reveal the flowering characteristics of Panax stipuleanatus and provide theoretical basis for distant hybridization between P. stipuleanatus and P. notoginseng.During the blossom of P. stipuleanatus, we observed and investigated blooming phenophase, growth dynamics of inflorescence, pollination and seed setting of its population and the flowering process and its period, the regularity of flowering and pollinating of the floret. Statistic analyses were carried out.The population florescence of P. stipuleanatus was about 60 d. The average florets quality of umbel was 44-47. The average natural pollination rates were 73.32%-95.39%. The average seed setting rates was 35.65%-51.76%. The highest growth periods of inflorescence are from March 25 to April 4. The diameter, the height and the length of its inflorescence in 10 d increased 44.65%, 42.19% and 106.25%, respectively. The whole stereotype period was the May beginning. The time that the floret from petal opening to withering it generally needed 36-48 h, 60 percent of the floret finished auther pollinating during the same day and 40 percent until the next day. The flowering and pollinating peak periods were 14:00-15:00, the flowering numbers was 28.48% of the total flowering amount and the pollinating numbers were 38.63% of the total pollinating amount. The high temperature (20-30 degrees C) and the low humidity (RH < 60%) were beneficial to flowering and pollinating.

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