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Liu S.B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu S.B.,Wens Foodstuffs Group Corporation Co. | Xie J.J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lu L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

Two experiments were conducted to estimate standardized P retention (SPR) values of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and monopotassium phosphate (MKP) in broilers. In total, ninety-six 22-d-old male broilers with similar BW (780 g average) were used in each experiment. The chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments (P-free, DCP, MCP, or MKP diets) with 6 replicate cages of 4 chicks each in a completely randomized design. After 3-d acclimation, chicks were fasted for 24 h and then fed P-free, DCP, MCP, or MKP diets for 4 h in Exp. 1 or 72 h in Exp. 2. Excreta samples were collected for a total of 28 or 52 h (24 or 48 h after feed withdrawal) in Exp. 1 and 96 or 120 h (24 or 48 h after feed withdrawal) in Exp. 2, respectively. The excreta collection time of 52 h in Exp. 1 or 96 h in Exp. 2 was adequate for the estimation of SPR. The estimated basal endogenous P losses (EPL) in chicks fed the P-free diet were 109 ± 4 mg/52 h per bird and 49.2 ± 4.0 mg/96 h per bird in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. The SPR values of inorganic phosphate sources corrected by the above basal EPL differed (P < 0.001) in Exp. 2 but not in Exp. 1. However, these SPR values were very similar between the 2 experiments with 68.7, 69.8, or 76.6% in Exp. 1 and 71.8, 70.6, or 78.3% in Exp. 2 for DCP, MCP, or MKP, respectively. The results from the current study indicated that, compared with the 72-h feeding and 96-h excreta collection procedure, the 4-h feeding and 52-h excreta collection procedure was a relatively quicker time- and labor-saving method for estimating the SPR values of inorganic P sources in broilers. The estimated SPR values of commonly used inorganic P sources (MCP and DCP) were about 70%. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Liu S.B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu S.B.,Wens Foodstuffs Group Corporation Co. | Li S.F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li S.F.,Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of organic zinc (Zn) proteinate relative to inorganic Zn sulfate for chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 576 one-day-old chicks were fed a Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg of Zn/kg from each Zn source for 21 d. As compared with birds fed diets supplemented with Zn sulfate, broilers fed the diets supplemented with Zn proteinate had higher (P = 0.048) ADFI and higher (P = 0.106) ADG values. Meanwhile, birds fed the diets supplemented with Zn proteinate had higher (P < 0.05) Zn concentrations in plasma and tibia ash than those fed the diets supplemented with Zn sulfate. Plasma Zn concentrations, tibia ash Zn contents, and pancreas metallothionein mRNA level increased linearly (P < 0.001) as dietary Zn level increased. Based on the slope ratios from multiple linear regressions of tibia ash Zn concentration and pancreas metallothionein mRNA level with daily analyzed Zn intake, no significant (P > 0.05) difference in bioavailability was observed between Zn proteinate and Zn sulfate for chicks, which might be explained by the weak chelation strength of the Zn proteinate. Zinc from Zn proteinate was as available as Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers; however, Zn proteinate was more effective than Zn sulfate in enhancing feed intake and tended to improve the growth rate of broilers. © 2013 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source


Ma X.Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ma X.Y.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu S.B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu S.B.,Wens Foodstuffs Group Corporation Co. | And 6 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

An experiment was carried out to determine the bioavailability of organic Fe as Fe proteinate (Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) relative to inorganic Fe source (FeSO4·7H2O) for broiler chicks fed a caseindextrose diet. A total of 448 1-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 replicate cages (8 chicks per cage) for each of 7 treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 Fe sources (Fe proteinate and Fe sulfate) and 3 levels of added Fe (10, 20, or 40 mg of Fe/kg) plus a Feunsupplemented control diet containing 4.56 mg of Fe/ kg by analysis. Feed and distilled-deionized water were available ad libitum for an experimental phase of 14 d. At 14 d of age, blood samples were collected for testing hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit, and calculating total body Hb Fe, whereas liver and kidney samples were excised for Fe analyses. The results showed that ADG, ADFI, blood Hb, hematocrit, and total body Hb Fe and Fe concentrations in liver and kidney increased linearly (P < 0.0001), whereas mortality decreased linearly (P < 0.0001) as dietary Fe level increased. However, only blood Hb concentration and total body Hb Fe differed (P < 0.004) between the 2 Fe sources. Based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of Hb concentration and total body Hb Fe on daily intake of analyzed dietary Fe, the bioavailability of Fe proteinate relative to FeSO4·7H2O (100%) was 117 and 114%, respectively (P < 0.009). The results indicated that blood Hb concentration and total body Hb Fe were sensitive indices in reflecting differences in bioavailability among different Fe sources, and Fe proteinate was significantly more available to broilers than inorganic Fe sulfate in enhancing Hb concentration and total body Hb Fe. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source


Zhang H.F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ren L.Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tan H.Z.,Wens Foodstuffs Group Corporation Co. | Zhao F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using corn starch as the basal diet to determine the ME of protein feedstuffs using the TME assay in Chinese Yellow chickens. In the first experiment, the TME of corn starch were determined by force-feeding 25 or 40 g of feed. To test the repeatability of the bioassay, the same experiment was repeated 4 times. In the second experiment, the TME of soybean meal and cottonseed meal was determined by considering corn starch as the basal diet, while corn was fed alone to the chickens. To test the accuracy of the TME assay for individual ingredients, the additivity was evaluated by determining the TME of 3 mixed diets: corn-soybean meal diet, corn-cottonseed meal diet, and corn-soybean meal-cottonseed meal diet. In experiment 1, the value of endogenous energy loss was 16.76 to 18.46 kcal/48 h, and no significant differences between the 4 assays were noted. The TME and energy metabolizability of the 25-g corn starch treatment (4.06 kcal/g and 98.06%) were higher than those of the 40-g treatment (3.79 kcal/g and 91.45%; P < 0.01); whereas the CV were less than that of the 40-g treatment, indicating that it is reasonable to use the TME value of the 25-g treatment in feed formulation. In experiment 2, the TME values for corn, soybean meal, and cottonseed meal were 4.02, 3.39, and 2.92 kcal/g, respectively. The observed and predicted TME values of the corn-soybean meal, corn-cottonseed meal, and corn-soybean meal-cottonseed meal diets were in high agreement with differences ranging from -0.02 to 0.01 kcal/g. None of the differences was significant, indicating an accurate measure of the TME of the individual ingredients. Thus, using corn starch as the basal diet to determine the TME of protein feedstuffs was validated. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source


Ren L.Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhao F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tan H.Z.,Wens Foodstuffs Group Corporation Co. | Zhao J.T.,Wens Foodstuffs Group Corporation Co. | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein source on the digestive enzymes and electrolyte composition of digesta fluid in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of chickens. A 2 × 3 factorial and completely randomized design that used 2 types of diets that differed only in their protein source [a corn-soybean meal-miscellaneous meal diet (CSMD) and a corn-miscellaneous meal diet (CMD)] and 3 types of cannulated roosters (duodenal, jejunal, and ileal cannulations) was adopted. The experiments included 5 replicates for each of the 6 treatments, and each replicate involved 3 cannulated chickens. The digesta samples were collected for 1 h every 4 h between 09:30 and 18:30 h on d 31, 33, and 35 of the experiment. The amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities and the electrolyte composition in the duodenal, jejunal, and ileal fluid were determined. In general, no significant differences between the 2 dietary groups were observed for the mean of duodenal, jejuna, and ileal amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase, respectively. However, the duodenal amylase activity was lower in the CMD group than the CSMD group (P < 0.05), which was probably related to the lower duodenal pH value that was observed in this group (P < 0.01). A higher jejunal Mg 2+ concentration was observed in chickens that were fed the CMD (P < 0.05), whereas the differences in the Na +, K +, Cl -, and Ca 2+ concentrations in the small intestine were not significant between the 2 diets (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the digestive enzymes and electrolytes in the small intestinal fluid of chickens adapted to the protein source of the diet, and each segment of the small intestine displayed different modifications. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

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