Kane S.E.,South Dakota State University |
Kane S.E.,Wenatchee Valley College |
Holler L.D.,South Dakota State University |
Braun L.J.,South Dakota State University |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2015
Case Description—136 pregnant beef cows were purchased in the fall of 2003. The following spring, 128 cows calved as expected; 8 cows were believed to have aborted with the fetuses unavailable for evaluation. Of the 128 calves born, 8 died within 2 weeks after birth and 9 were born with congenital abnormalities. Clinical Findings—Cows and their calves were evaluated for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. Forty-four of 120 calves, but 0 cows, tested positive for BVDV antigen by immunohistochemical staining of ear notch specimens. Treatment and Outcome—Five BVDV test–positive calves died shortly after weaning, and the remaining 39 BVDV test–positive calves were moved to an isolated feedlot and retested for BVDV at 5 to 6 months of age; 36 had positive results, which indicated that they were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV, whereas 3 had negative results, which indicated that they were transiently infected with BVDV at the time of the first test. All PI calves were infected with the same BVDV type 2a strain. As yearlings, 17 of the 36 PI calves died peracutely with lesions consistent with mucosal disease, 6 died without gross lesions, and 2 were euthanized because of chronic ill thrift. The remaining 11 PI calves appeared healthy and were sold for slaughter. Screening of the following year’s calf crop for BVDV by use of immunohistochemical staining of ear-notch specimens yielded negative results for all calves. Clinical Relevance—Introduction of BVDV into a naïve cow herd resulted in a loss of 44% of the calf crop subsequent to reproductive loss, poor thrift, and mucosal disease. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Shields J.,Fluke Corporation |
Hammond H.,Fluke Corporation |
Jourdan G.,Wenatchee Valley College
EC and M: Electrical Construction and Maintenance | Year: 2010
Electrical service technicians need to understand the communications problems that arise in multilayered building control systems to repair such systems. Many many service technicians need to improve and broaden their skills to cover network and signal troubleshooting. The problems can arise from a wide range of sources, including failure in the equipment, sensor, or actuator at the lowest level. There can also be problems in the network communications path between the field controller and the Ethernet or IP infrastructure. Communications problems fall into one of three categories, such as cabling infrastructure, signal transmission, and networking. Backbones are also prone to configuration errors that fall into the information technology (IT) domain in addition to these three basic network problems.
Martins T.V.,John Innes Center |
Evans M.J.,John Innes Center |
Wysham D.B.,Wenatchee Valley College |
Morris R.J.,John Innes Center
BMC Systems Biology | Year: 2016
Background: Calcium signalling relies on the flux of calcium ions across membranes yet how signals in different compartments are related remains unclear. In particular, similar calcium signals on both sides of the nuclear envelope have been reported and attributed to passive diffusion through nuclear pores. However, observed differing cytosolic and nucleosolic calcium signatures suggest that the signalling machinery in these compartments can act independently. Results: We adapt the fire-diffuse-fire model to investigate the generation of perinuclear calcium oscillations. We demonstrate that autonomous spatio-temporal calcium patterns are still possible in the presence of nuclear and cytosolic coupling via nuclear pores. The presence or absence of this autonomy is dependent upon the strength of the coupling and the maximum firing rate of an individual calcium channel. In all cases, coupling through the nuclear pores enables robust signalling with respect to changes in the diffusion constant. Conclusions: We show that contradictory interpretations of experimental data with respect to the autonomy of nuclear calcium oscillations can be reconciled within one model, with different observations being a consequence of varying nuclear pore permeabilities for calcium and refractory conditions of channels. Furthermore, our results provide an explanation for why calcium oscillations on both sides of the nuclear envelope may be beneficial for sustained perinuclear signaling. © 2016 The Author(s).
Chase C.C.L.,South Dakota State University |
Thakur N.,South Dakota State University |
Darweesh M.F.,South Dakota State University |
Darweesh M.F.,South Valley University |
And 4 more authors.
Animal Health Research Reviews | Year: 2015
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has long been associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes and immune dysregulation, many which result in secondary bacterial infections. Current understanding of immune cell interactions that result in activation and tolerance are explored in light of BVDV infection including: depletion of lymphocytes, effects on neutrophils, natural killer cells, and the role of receptors and cytokines. In addition, we review some new information on the effect of BVDV on immune development in the fetal liver, the role of resident macrophages, and greater implications for persistent infection. © Cambridge University Press 2015.