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Coleman M.P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Forman D.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Bryant H.,Canadian Partnership Against Cancer | Rachet B.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 19 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Cancer survival is a key measure of the effectiveness of health-care systems. Persistent regional and international differences in survival represent many avoidable deaths. Differences in survival have prompted or guided cancer control strategies. This is the first study in a programme to investigate international survival disparities, with the aim of informing health policy to raise standards and reduce inequalities in survival. Data from population-based cancer registries in 12 jurisdictions in six countries were provided for 2·4 million adults diagnosed with primary colorectal, lung, breast (women), or ovarian cancer during 1995-2007, with follow-up to Dec 31, 2007. Data quality control and analyses were done centrally with a common protocol, overseen by external experts. We estimated 1-year and 5-year relative survival, constructing 252 complete life tables to control for background mortality by age, sex, and calendar year. We report age-specific and age-standardised relative survival at 1 and 5 years, and 5-year survival conditional on survival to the first anniversary of diagnosis. We also examined incidence and mortality trends during 1985-2005. Relative survival improved during 1995-2007 for all four cancers in all jurisdictions. Survival was persistently higher in Australia, Canada, and Sweden, intermediate in Norway, and lower in Denmark, England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, particularly in the first year after diagnosis and for patients aged 65 years and older. International differences narrowed at all ages for breast cancer, from about 9 to 5 at 1 year and from about 14 to 8 at 5 years, but less or not at all for the other cancers. For colorectal cancer, the international range narrowed only for patients aged 65 years and older, by 2-6 at 1 year and by 2-3 at 5 years. Up-to-date survival trends show increases but persistent differences between countries. Trends in cancer incidence and mortality are broadly consistent with these trends in survival. Data quality and changes in classification are not likely explanations. The patterns are consistent with later diagnosis or differences in treatment, particularly in Denmark and the UK, and in patients aged 65 years and older. Department of Health, England; and Cancer Research UK. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ahmed T.,University of Cardiff | Steward J.A.,Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit | O'mahony M.S.,University of Cardiff
Age and Ageing | Year: 2012

Background: examine baseline dyspnoea and subsequent 10-year mortality adjusting for age and gender and determine whether dyspnoea is related to early or late mortality or both. Examine the relationship between dyspnoea and mortality adjusting for confounding effects of underlying diseases.Methods: we sent modified Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea questionnaire to identify breathlessness in 1,404 randomly selected subjects from general practitioner lists of 5,002 subjects aged 70 years and over living in the community. A further random sample of 500 subjects underwent clinical assessment including pulmonary function tests, electrocardiography and echocardiography. Subjects were followed up for 10 years and all deaths were recorded, using general practitioner records and the local death registry. Results: prevalence of dyspnoea was 32.3%. Breathlessness was associated with early mortality and late mortality. At 2 years 10.1% breathless subjects died compared with 3.4% non-breathless (P = 0.02). At 10 years 63.3% breathless had died compared with 40.5% non-breathless (P = 0.0001). Increasing grade of MRC dyspnoea was associated with 10 mortality. Advancing age (OR: 2.27), male gender (OR: 1.95), breathlessness (OR: 2.53), left ventricular dysfunction (OR: 5.01) and chronic airways disease (OR: 3.04) were all significantly associated with 10-year mortality. After adjustment of age, gender and underlying diseases breathlessness was associated with 10-year mortality (P = 0.02).Conclusion: dyspnoea is a predictor of early and late mortality and increasing grade of dyspnoea is associated with a higher rate of mortality. Dyspnoea is an independent risk factor for mortality after adjustment for age, gender and underlying diseases. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.

Chan D.S.Y.,University of Wales | Reid T.D.,University of Wales | White C.,Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit | Willicombe A.,University of Wales | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine outcomes of a reconfigured centralised upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer service model, allied to an enhanced recovery programme, when compared with historical controls in a UK cancer network. Materials and methods: Details of 606 consecutive patients diagnosed with UGI cancer were collected prospectively and outcomes before ( n=251) and after ( n=355) centralisation compared. Primary outcome measures were rates of curative treatment intent, operative morbidity, length of hospital stay and survival. Results: The rate of curative treatment intent increased from 21 to 36% after centralisation ( P<0.0001). Operative morbidity (mortality) and length of hospital stay before and after centralisation were 40% (2.5%) and 16 days, compared with 45% (2.4%) and 13 days, respectively ( P=0.024). The median and 1 year survival (all patients) improved from 8.7 months and 39.0% to 10.8 months and 46.8%, respectively, after centralisation ( P=0.032). On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio 1.894, 95% confidence interval 0.743-4.781, P<0.0001), centralisation (hazard ratio 0.809, 95% confidence interval 0.668-0.979, P=0.03) and overall radiological TNM stage (hazard ratio 3.905, 95% confidence interval 1.413-11.270, P<0.0001) were independently associated with survival. Conclusion: These outcomes confirm the patient safety, quality of care and survival improvements achievable by compliance with National Health Service Improving Outcomes Guidance. © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists.

Lepage C.,University of Burgundy | Ciccolallo L.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | De Angelis R.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | De Angelis R.,Centro Nazionale Of Epidemiologia | And 63 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to report on malignant digestive endocrine tumours (MDET) prognosis in several European countries. We analysed survival data from 19 cancer registries in 12 European countries on 3,715 MDET diagnosed between 1985 and 1994. The overall 5-year survival rate was 47.5%. It was 58.1% for differentiated MDET and 8.1% for small-cell MDET (p < 0.001), 55.9% for patients under 65 and 37.0% for older patients. Survival rates for small intestinal and colorectal were higher than for the other sites. The 5-year relative survival rates were 60.3% in Northern Europe, 53.6% in Western Continental Europe, 42.5% in the UK, 37.6% in Eastern Europe (p < 0.001). Among well-differentiated pancreatic tumours, 5-year relative survival was 55.6% for insulinoma, 48.4% for gastrinoma, 33.4% for glucagonoma, 28.8% for carcinoïd tumours and 49.9% for non-functioning tumours. The relative excess risk of death was significantly lower in Western Continental Europe and Northern Europe and significantly higher in Easter European compared to the UK. MDET differentiation, site, geographic area, age and sex, were independent prognostic factors. Overall, in Europe approximately half of the patients with MDET survive 5 years after the initial diagnosis. Prognosis varies with tumour differentiation, anatomic site and histological type. There are significant differences in survival from MDET among European countries, independently of other prognostic factors.

Brain K.E.,University of Cardiff | Smits S.,University of Cardiff | Simon A.E.,City University London | Simon A.E.,University College London | And 7 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: While ovarian cancer is recognised as having identifiable early symptoms, understanding of the key determinants of symptom awareness and early presentation is limited. A population-based survey of ovarian cancer awareness and anticipated delayed presentation with symptoms was conducted as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP).Methods: Women aged over 50 years were recruited using random probability sampling (n = 1043). Computer-assisted telephone interviews were used to administer measures including ovarian cancer symptom recognition, anticipated time to presentation with ovarian symptoms, health beliefs (perceived risk, perceived benefits/barriers to early presentation, confidence in symptom detection, ovarian cancer worry), and demographic variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the contribution of independent variables to anticipated presentation (categorised as < 3 weeks or ≥ 3 weeks).Results: The most well-recognised symptoms of ovarian cancer were post-menopausal bleeding (87.4%), and persistent pelvic (79.0%) and abdominal (85.0%) pain. Symptoms associated with eating difficulties and changes in bladder/bowel habits were recognised by less than half the sample. Lower symptom awareness was significantly associated with older age (p ≤ 0.001), being single (p ≤ 0.001), lower education (p ≤ 0.01), and lack of personal experience of ovarian cancer (p ≤ 0.01). The odds of anticipating a delay in time to presentation of ≥ 3 weeks were significantly increased in women educated to degree level (OR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.61 - 4.33, p ≤ 0.001), women who reported more practical barriers (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.34 - 1.91, p ≤ 0.001) and more emotional barriers (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.40, p ≤ 0.01), and those less confident in symptom detection (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.42 - 0.73, p ≤ 0.001), but not in those who reported lower symptom awareness (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.91 - 1.07, p = 0.74).Conclusions: Many symptoms of ovarian cancer are not well-recognised by women in the general population. Evidence-based interventions are needed not only to improve public awareness but also to overcome the barriers to recognising and acting on ovarian symptoms, if delays in presentation are to be minimised. © 2014 Brain et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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