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Okerberg E.S.,ActivX Biosciences Inc. | Hainley A.,ActivX Biosciences Inc. | Brown H.,ActivX Biosciences Inc. | Aban A.,ActivX Biosciences Inc. | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

We describe the identification of a novel, tumor-specific missense mutation in the active site of casein kinase 1α (CSNK1A1) using activity-based proteomics. Matched normal and tumor colon samples were analyzed using an ATP acyl phosphate probe in a kinase-targeted LC-MS2 platform. An anomaly in the active-site peptide from CSNK1A1 was observed in a tumor sample that was consistent with an altered catalytic aspartic acid. Expression and analysis of the suspected mutant verified the presence of asparagine in the probe-labeled, active-site peptide for CSNK1A1. Genomic sequencing of the colon tumor samples confirmed the presence of a missense mutation in the catalytic aspartic acid of CSNK1A1 (GAC→AAC). To our knowledge, the D163N mutation in CSNK1A1 is a newly defined mutation to the conserved, catalytic aspartic acid of a protein kinase and the first missense mutation identified using activity-based proteomics. The tumorigenic potential of this mutation remains to be determined. © 2016 Okerberg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Li S.,University of California at San Diego | Li S.,Wellspring Biosciences, Llc | Ni A.,University of California at San Diego | Feng G.-S.,University of California at San Diego
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica | Year: 2015

Bile acids (BAs) are traditionally considered as "physiological detergents" for emulsifying hydrophobic lipids and vitamins due to their amphipathic nature. But accumulating clinical and experimental evidence shows an association between disrupted BA homeostasis and various liver disease conditions including hepatitis infection, diabetes and cancer. Consequently, BA homeostasis regulation has become a field of heavy interest and investigation. After identification of the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) as an endogenous receptor for BAs, several nuclear receptors (SHP, HNF4α, and LRH-1) were also found to be important in regulation of BA homeostasis. Some post-translational modifications of these nuclear receptors have been demonstrated, but their physiological significance is still elusive. Gut secrets FGF15/19 that can activate hepatic FGFR4 and its downstream signaling cascade, leading to repressed hepatic BA biosynthesis. However, the link between the activated kinases and these nuclear receptors is not fully elucidated. Here, we review the recent literature on signal crosstalk in BA homeostasis. © 2015 CPS and SIMM . Source

Atkins C.,Southern Research Institute | Atkins C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Evans C.W.,Southern Research Institute | Nordin B.,ActivX Biosciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2014

During viral infection of human cells, host kinases mediate signaling activities that are used by all viruses for replication; therefore, targeting of host kinases is of broad therapeutic interest. Here, host kinases were globally screened during human influenza virus (H1N1) infection to determine the time-dependent effects of virus infection and replication on kinase function. Desthiobiotin-labeled analogs of adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate were used to probe and covalently label host kinases in infected cell lysates, and probe affinity was determined. Using infected human A549 cells, we screened for time-dependent signal changes and identified host kinases whose probe affinities differed significantly when compared to uninfected cells. Our screen identified 10 novel host kinases that have not been previously shown to be involved with influenza virus replication, and we validated the functional importance of these novel kinases during infection using targeted small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The effects of kinase-targeted siRNA knockdowns on replicating virus levels were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and cytoprotection assays. We identified several novel host kinases that, when knocked down, enhanced or reduced the viral load in cell culture. This preliminary work represents the first screen of the changing host kinome in influenza virus-infected human cells. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Source

Pemovska T.,University of Helsinki | Johnson E.,Pfizer | Kontro M.,University of Helsinki | Repasky G.A.,University of Helsinki | And 9 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

The BCR-ABL1 fusion gene is a driver oncogene in chronic myeloid leukaemia and 30-50% of cases of adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Introduction of ABL1 kinase inhibitors (for example, imatinib) has markedly improved patient survival, but acquired drug resistance remains a challenge. Point mutations in the ABL1 kinase domain weaken inhibitor binding and represent the most common clinical resistance mechanism. The BCR-ABL1 kinase domain gatekeeper mutation Thr315Ile (T315I) confers resistance to all approved ABL1 inhibitors except ponatinib, which has toxicity limitations. Here we combine comprehensive drug sensitivity and resistance profiling of patient cells ex vivo with structural analysis to establish the VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib as a selective and effective inhibitor for T315I-mutant BCR-ABL1-driven leukaemia. Axitinib potently inhibited BCR-ABL1(T315I), at both biochemical and cellular levels, by binding to the active form of ABL1(T315I) in a mutation-selective binding mode. These findings suggest that the T315I mutation shifts the conformational equilibrium of the kinase in favour of an active (DFG-in) A-loop conformation, which has more optimal binding interactions with axitinib. Treatment of a T315I chronic myeloid leukaemia patient with axitinib resulted in a rapid reduction of T315I-positive cells from bone marrow. Taken together, our findings demonstrate an unexpected opportunity to repurpose axitinib, an anti-angiogenic drug approved for renal cancer, as an inhibitor for ABL1 gatekeeper mutant drug-resistant leukaemia patients. This study shows that wild-type proteins do not always sample the conformations available to disease-relevant mutant proteins and that comprehensive drug testing of patient-derived cells can identify unpredictable, clinically significant drug-repositioning opportunities. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Cheruvallath Z.S.,Takeda California | Gwaltney II S.L.,Global Blood Therapeutics | Sabat M.,Takeda California | Tang M.,Takeda California | And 8 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

Guided by co-crystal structures of compounds 15, 22 and 30, an SBDD approach led to the discovery of the 6-methyl pyridone series as a novel class of GKAs that potently activate GK in enzyme and cell assays. Anti-diabetic OGTT efficacy was demonstrated with 54 in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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