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Lakes of the Four Seasons, IN, United States

Yu Z.,Indiana University | Gunst S.J.,Indiana University | Tepper R.S.,Wells Center for Pediatric Research
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2013

Asthma is characterised by airway hyperreactivity, which is primarily treated with badrenergic bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory agents. However, mechanical strain during breathing is an important modulator of airway responsiveness and we have previously demonstrated in animal models that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) resulted in lower in vivo airway reactivity. We now evaluated whether using nocturnal CPAP decreased airway reactivity in clinically-stable adults with asthma. Adults with stable asthma and normal spirometry used nocturnal CPAP (8-10 cmH2O) or sham treatment (0-2 cmH2O) for 7 days. Spirometry and bronchial challenges were obtained before and after treatment. The primary outcome was the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (PC20). The CPAP group (n=16) had a significant decrease in airway reactivity (change in (D)logPC20 0.406, p<0.0017) while the sham group (n=9) had no significant change in airway reactivity (δlogPC20 0.003, p=0.9850). There was a significant difference in the change in airway reactivity for the CPAP versus the sham group (δlogPC20 0.41, p<0.043). Our findings indicate that chronic mechanical strain of the lungs produced using nocturnal CPAP for 7 days reduced airway reactivity in clinically stable asthmatics. Future studies of longer duration are required to determine whether CPAP can also decrease asthma symptoms and/or medication usage. Source

Valeri A.,CIEMAT | Alonso-Ferrero M.E.,CIEMAT | Rio P.,CIEMAT | Pujol M.R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant clonal disorder of the hematopoietic system caused by the expression of the BCR/ABL fusion oncogene. Although it is well known that CML cells are genetically unstable, the mechanisms accounting for this genomic instability are still poorly understood. Because the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is believed to control several mechanisms of DNA repair, we investigated whether this pathway was disrupted in CML cells. Our data show that CML cells have a defective capacity to generate FANCD2 nuclear foci, either in dividing cells or after DNA damage. Similarly, human cord blood CD34+ cells transduced with BCR/ABL retroviral vectors showed impaired FANCD2 foci formation, whereas FANCD2 monoubiquitination in these cells was unaffected. Soon after the transduction of CD34+ cells with BCR/ABL retroviral vectors a high proportion of cells with supernumerary centrosomes was observed. Similarly, BCR/ABL induced a high proportion of chromosomal abnormalities, while mediated a cell survival advantage after exposure to DNA crosslinking agents. Significantly, both the impaired formation of FANCD2 nuclear foci, and also the predisposition of BCR/ABL cells to develop centrosomal and chromosomal aberrations were reverted by the ectopic expression of BRCA1. Taken together, our data show for the first time a disruption of the FA/BRCA pathway in BCR/ABL cells, suggesting that this defective pathway should play an important role in the genomic instability of CML by the co-occurrence of centrosomal amplification and DNA repair deficiencies. © 2010 Valeri et al. Source

Gonzalez-Murillo A.,CIEMAT | Lozano M.L.,CIEMAT | Alvarez L.,CIEMAT | Jacome A.,CIEMAT | And 8 more authors.
Human Gene Therapy | Year: 2010

Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited genetic disease characterized mainly by bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. Although gene therapy may constitute a good therapeutic option for many patients with FA, none of the clinical trials so far developed has improved the clinical status of these patients. We have proposed strategies for the genetic correction of bone marrow grafts from patients with FA, using lentiviral vectors (LVs). Here we investigate the relevance of the expression of FANCA to confer a therapeutic effect in cells from patients with FA-A, the most frequent complementation group in FA. Our data show that relatively weak promoters such as the vav or phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter confer, per copy of FANCA, physiological levels of FANCA mRNA in lymphoblastoid cell lines, whereas the cytomegalovirus and, more significantly, spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) promoters mediated the expression of supraphysiological levels of FANCA mRNA. Insertion of the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) or a mutated WPRE into the 3′ region of PGK-FANCA LVs significantly increased FANCA mRNA levels. At the protein level, however, all tested vectors conferred, per copy of FANCA, similar and physiological levels of the protein, except SFFV LVs, which again conferred supraphysiological levels of FANCA. In spite of their different activity, all tested vectors mediated a similar phenotypic correction in FA-A lymphoblastoid cell lines and also in hematopoietic progenitors from patients with FA-A. On the basis of the efficacy and safety properties of PGK LVs, a PGK LV carrying FANCA and a mutant WPRE is proposed as an optimized vector for the gene therapy of patients with FA-A. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2010. Source

Vaz F.,Kings College London | Hanenberg H.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Hanenberg H.,Wells Center for Pediatric Research | Schuster B.,University of Wurzburg | And 17 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2010

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare chromosomal-instability disorder associated with a variety of developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure and predisposition to leukemia and other cancers. We have identified a homozygous missense mutation in the RAD51C gene in a consanguineous family with multiple severe congenital abnormalities characteristic of FA. RAD51C is a member of the RAD51-like gene family involved in homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair. The mutation results in loss of RAD51 focus formation in response to DNA damage and in increased cellular sensitivity to the DNA interstrand cross-linking agent mitomycin C and the topoisomerase-1 inhibitor camptothecin. Thus, biallelic germline mutations in a RAD51 paralog are associated with an FA-like syndrome. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Meindl A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hellebrand H.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Wiek C.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Erven V.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | And 21 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2010

Germline mutations in a number of genes involved in the recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks are associated with predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. RAD51C is essential for homologous recombination repair, and a biallelic missense mutation can cause a Fanconi anemia-like phenotype. In index cases from 1,100 German families with gynecological malignancies, we identified six monoallelic pathogenic mutations in RAD51C that confer an increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer. These include two frameshift-causing insertions, two splice-site mutations and two nonfunctional missense mutations. The mutations were found exclusively within 480 pedigrees with the occurrence of both breast and ovarian tumors (BC/OC; 1.3%) and not in 620 pedigrees with breast cancer only or in 2,912 healthy German controls. These results provide the first unambiguous evidence of highly penetrant mutations associated with human cancer in a RAD51 paralog and support the 'common disease, rare allele' hypothesis. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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