Time filter

Source Type

Guelph, Canada

Zhou S.N.,Brock University | Zhou S.N.,Environment Canada | Reiner E.J.,Environment Canada | Marvin C.,National Water Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Until recently, atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) has typically been used for the determination of non-polar halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) by liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS/MS) for analysis of 38 HFRs. This developed method offered three advantages: simplicity, rapidity, and high sensitivity. Compared with APPI, APCI does not require a UV lamp and a dopant reagent to assist atmospheric pressure ionization. All the isomers and the isobaric compounds were well resolved within 14-min LC separation time. Excellent instrument detection limits (6.1 pg on average with 2.0 μL injection) were observed. The APCI mechanism was also investigated. The method developed has been applied to the screening of wastewater samples for screening purpose, with concentrations determined by LC-APCI-MS/MS agreeing with data obtained via gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Tomy G.T.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Sverko E.,McMaster University | Sverko E.,Environment Canada | Palace V.,Stantec Consulting Ltd. | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2013

Compounds related to the high-production-volume flame retardant Dechlorane Plus (DP) were measured in a Lake Ontario food web located downstream of a DP manufacturing plant. These compounds, 1,3- and 1,5-DP-monoadducts (DPMA), are positional isomers and are thought to arise from the incomplete reaction of DP or impurities in the DP starting material during its manufacture. The 1,3-DPMA isomer was measured (0.12-199ngg-1 lipid wt) in all trophic levels, whereas 1,5-DPMA was measured only sporadically in the food web and was not detectable in the apex predator, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Concentrations of DPMA isomers when detected in Lake Ontario biota were greater than that of total DP for all trophic levels. The prevalence of 1,3-DPMA in the food web, and especially in lake trout, may be due to obstruction of the existing carbon double bond to enzyme attack, rendering it less readily metabolized. To examine this hypothesis, biotransformation kinetic experiments using in vitro lake trout liver microsomal exposures were performed. Zero-order depletion rate constants for 1,3- and 1,5-DPMA were 92.2 and 134.6 pmole h-1, respectively, with corresponding half-lives of 2.03±0.14h (1,3-DPMA) and 1.39±0.09h (1,5-DPMA). Furthermore, the 1,5-isomer was depleted to a greater extent than 1,3-DPMA. Specific biotransformation products were not identified. These data support the hypothesis that 1,5-DPMA is more readily metabolized than 1,3-DPMA by lake trout. The present study also shows that the concentrations of these isomers, which the authors speculate might be unintended impurities or byproducts in some technical DP formulations, exceed that of the intended product in biota. © 2013 SETAC.

Sverko E.,McMaster University | Sverko E.,Environment Canada | McCarry B.,McMaster University | McCrindle R.,Wellington Laboratories | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The environmental occurrence of dechlorination moieties from the high production volume flame retardant, Dechlorane Plus (DP), has largely been documented; however, the sources have yet to be well understood. In addition, few laboratory-based studies exist which identify the cause for the occurrence of these chemicals in the environment or humans. Anaerobic dechlorination of the two DP isomers was investigated using a laboratory-simulated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) environment where anaerobic digestion is used as part of the treatment regime. Known amounts of each isomer were added separately to sewage sludge which provided the electron-donating substrate and at prescribed time points in the incubation, a portion of the media was removed and analyzed for DP and any dechlorination metabolites. After 7 days, monohydrodechlorinated products were observed for both the syn- and anti-DP which were continued throughout the duration of our study (49 days) in an increasing manner giving a calculated formation rate of 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.79 ± 0.12 pmols/day for syn- and anti-DP, respectively. Furthermore, we observed a second monohydrodechlorinated product only in the anti-DP isomer incubation medium. This strongly suggests that anti-DP is more susceptible to anaerobic degradation than the syn isomer. We also provide compelling evidence to the location of chlorine loss in the dechlorination DP analogues. Finally, the dechlorination DP moieties formed in our study matched the retention times and identification of those observed in surficial sediment located downstream of the WWTP. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Zhou S.N.,Brock University | Zhou S.N.,Environment Canada | Reiner E.J.,Environment Canada | Marvin C.,National Water Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

A comprehensive, sensitive and high-throughput liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APPI-MS/MS) method has been developed for analysis of 36 halogenated flame retardants (HFRs). Under the optimized LC conditions, all of the HFRs eluted from the LC column within 14 min, while maintaining good chromatographic separation for the isomers. Introduction of the pre-heated dopant to the APPI source decreased the background noise fivefold, which enhanced sensitivity. An empirical equation was proposed to describe the relation between the ion intensity and dopant flow. The excellent on-column instrument detection limits averaged 4.7 pg, which was similar to the sensitivity offered by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). This method was used to analyze a series of fish samples. Good agreement was found between the results for PBDEs from LC-APPI-MS/MS and GC-HRMS. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Sverko E.,McMaster University | Sverko E.,Environment Canada | Reiner E.J.,Environment Canada | Tomy G.T.,Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The historical occurrence of Dechlorane Plus (DP) and detection of novel compounds structurally related to DP is described in a dated Lake Ontario sediment core. Our core was collected near the mouth of the Niagara River, which is known to be a major source of DP to the lake. Maximum DP concentrations (920 ng g -1, dry weight) were observed between 1976 and 1980, the highest reported to date. Following that time, we observed a dramatic decrease in DP concentration which coincided with the enactment of United States federal and state laws to mitigate free release of chemicals into the Niagara River and installation of an industrial wastewater treatment facility. During the course of our research, four new substances structurally related to DP were also identified. These compounds were thought to arise from the Diels-Alder reactions resulting from impuritiespresent in 1,5-cyclooctadiene, a feedstock used in production of DP. To confirm our hypothesis, Diels-Alder reactions were performed on the individual impurities. Using different stationary-phase capillary gas chromatography columns and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we were able to positively identify some of these novel compounds in the core. Interestingly, we also were able to identify a monoadduct compound, formed by addition of 1 mol of hexachlorocyclopentadiene to 2 mol of 1,3-cyclooctadiene, in lake trout. The concentration of this monoadduct was approximately 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DP, suggesting that it is more bioaccumulative. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Discover hidden collaborations