Cook N.R.,Harvard University |
Appel L.J.,Welch Center for Prevention |
Whelton P.K.,Tulane University
Circulation | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND-: Recent studies have raised the possibility of adverse effects of low sodium, particularly <2300 mg/d, on cardiovascular disease; however, these paradoxical findings might have resulted from suboptimal measurement of sodium and potential biases related to indication or reverse causation. METHODS AND RESULTS-: Phases 1 and 2 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) collected multiple 24-hour urine specimens among prehypertensive individuals. During extended posttrial surveillance, 193 cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease deaths occurred among 2275 participants not in a sodium reduction intervention with 10 (TOHP II) or 15 (TOHP I) years of posttrial follow-up. Median sodium excretion was 3630 mg/d, with 1.4% of the participants having intake <1500 mg/d and 10% <2300 mg/d, consistent with national levels. Compared with those with sodium excretion of 3600 to <4800 mg/d, risk for those with sodium <2300 mg/d was 32% lower after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-1.37; P for trend=0.13). There was a linear 17% increase in risk per 1000 mg/d increase in sodium (P=0.05). Spline curves supported a linear association of sodium with cardiovascular events, which continued to decrease from 3600 to 2300 and 1500 mg/d, although the data were sparse at the lowest levels. Controlling for creatinine levels had little effect on these results. CONCLUSIONS-: Results from the TOHP studies, which overcome the major methodological challenges of prior studies, are consistent with overall health benefits of reducing sodium intake to the 1500 to 2300 mg/d range in the majority of the population, in agreement with current dietary guidelines. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Pickett-Blakely O.,Johns Hopkins University |
Cooper L.A.,Johns Hopkins University |
Cooper L.A.,Welch Center for Prevention
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2011
Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional clinical encounter data. Obese adults were obtained from the 2005 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (N = 2458). Results: A third of obese adults received an obesity diagnosis (28.9%) and approximately a fifth received counseling for weight reduction (17.6%), diet (25.2%), or exercise (20.5%). Women (OR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.09), young adults ages 18-29 (OR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.37, 4.97), and severely/morbidly obese individuals (class II: OR 2.08; 95% CI: 1.53, 2.83; class III: OR 4.36; 95% CI: 3.09, 6.16) were significantly more likely to receive an obesity diagnosis. One of the biggest predictors of weight-related counseling was an obesity diagnosis (weight reduction: OR = 5.72; 95% CI: 4.01, 8.17; diet: OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 2.05, 4.06; exercise: OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.67, 3.85). Other predictors of weight-related counseling included seeing a cardiologist/other internal medicine specialist, a preventive visit, or spending more time with the doctor (p< 0.05). Conclusions: Most obese patients do not receive an obesity diagnosis or weight-related counseling. Practice implications: Preventive visits may provide a key opportunity for obese patients to receive weight-related counseling from their physician. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Levey A.S.,Tufts University |
Inker L.A.,Tufts University |
Coresh J.,Welch Center for Prevention
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2014
Estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential for clinical practice, research, and public health. Appropriate interpretation of estimated GFR (eGFR) requires understanding the principles of physiology, laboratory medicine, epidemiology, and biostatistics used in the development and validation of GFR estimating equations. Equations developed in diverse populations are less biased at higher GFRs than equations developed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations and are more appropriate for general use. Equations that include multiple endogenous filtration markers are more precise than equations including a single filtration marker. The CKD-EPI (CKD Epidemiology Collaboration) equations are the most accurate GFR estimating equations that have been evaluated in large diverse populations and are applicable for general clinical use. The 2009 CKD-EPI creatinine equation is more accurate in estimating GFR and prognosis than the 2006 MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) Study equation and provides lower estimates of prevalence of decreased eGFR. It is useful as a "first test" for decreased eGFR and should replace the MDRD Study equation for routine reporting of serum creatinine-based eGFR by clinical laboratories. The 2012 CKD-EPI cystatin C equation is as accurate as the 2009 CKD-EPI creatinine equation in estimating GFR, does not require specification of race, and may be more accurate in patients with decreased muscle mass. The 2012 CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation is more accurate than the 2009 CKD-EPI creatinine and 2012 CKD-EPI cystatin C equations and is useful as a confirmatory test for decreased eGFR as determined by serum creatinine-based eGFR. Further improvement in GFR estimating equations will require development in more broadly representative populations, including diverse racial and ethnic groups, use of multiple filtration markers, and evaluation using statistical techniques to compare eGFR to "true GFR." © 2014 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
Hikmat F.,Welch Center for Prevention |
Appel L.J.,Welch Center for Prevention |
Appel L.J.,Johns Hopkins University
Journal of Human Hypertension | Year: 2014
In the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial, the DASH diet reduced blood pressure (BP) in a diverse sample of US adults. Subsequent analyses of this trial documented the efficacy of the DASH diet in several subgroups. Although subgroup analyses in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been performed, the DASH diet has been recommended in MS patients. This paper is a subgroup analysis of the DASH trial, in which we examined the effect of study diets on BP in participants with and without MS. Participants were stratified according to MS status (99 with MS, 311 without MS (Non-MS)). The trial was a dietary intervention study in which participants were randomized to receive a control diet, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, or the DASH diet. Outcomes were (i) the difference in BP between the end and the beginning of intervention and (ii) control of hypertension. We found no significant interaction between MS status and diet assignment on BP (each P-interaction >0.05). In the MS subgroup, the DASH diet compared with the control diet reduced systolic BP by 4.9 mm Hg (P=0.006) and diastolic BP by 1.9 mm Hg (P=0.15). In the Non-MS subgroup, corresponding net BP reductions were 5.2 mm Hg (P<0.001) and 2.9 mm Hg (P<0.001), respectively. The DASH diet controlled hypertension in 75% of hypertensive participants with MS (adjusted odds ratio=9.5 vs the control diet, P=0.05). In conclusion, the DASH diet similarly reduces BP in those with and without MS. Our findings provide direct evidence for existing recommendations. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
Bower J.K.,Welch Center for Prevention |
Brancati F.L.,Welch Center for Prevention |
Brancati F.L.,Johns Hopkins University |
Selvin E.,Welch Center for Prevention
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013
OBJECTIVEdCurrent recommendations for the use of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in diabetes screening and diagnosis aim to identify those at greatest risk for diabetic microvascular complications. However, there is current controversy regarding the clinical implications of ethnic differences in HbA1c values. The objective of this study was to determine whether the association between HbA1c and retinopathy differs by ethnic group in a representative sample of U.S. adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSdThe study was a cross-sectional analysis of 2,945 non-Hispanic white, 1,046 non-Hispanic black, and 1,231 Hispanic American participants aged 40 years from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. RESULTSdAmong nondiabetic adults, the mean HbA1c was 5.5% in non-Hispanic whites, 5.7% in non-Hispanic blacks, and 5.6% in Hispanic Americans. Among those with diagnosed diabetes, mean HbA1c was 6.9% in non-Hispanic whites, 7.5% in non-Hispanic Blacks, and 7.7% in Hispanic Americans. Overall, non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence of retinopathy. In multivariable logistic models, HbA1c clinical categories were strongly associated with prevalent retinopathy. However, the magnitude of the association did not differ by ethnic group (all P values for interaction 0.7). Similar results were observed with HbA1c modeled continuously (per one percentage point) and stratified by diabetes status (all P for interactions . 0.3). CONCLUSIONSdWe observed no ethnic differences in the association of HbA1c with retinopathy. These data do not support ethnic-specific cut points for HbA1c for diagnosis or screening of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.