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Williamson J.A.,Harvard University | Cho S.-H.,WELBIO | Cho S.-H.,Harvard University | Cho S.-H.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 5 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

The mechanism by which transmembrane reductases use a single pair of cysteine residues to relay electrons between protein substrates across biological membranes is a long-standing mystery in thiol-redox biochemistry. Here we show the NMR structure of a reduced-state mimic of archaeal CcdA, a protein that transfers electrons across the inner membrane, by using a redox-active NMR sample. The two cysteine positions in CcdA are separated by 20 Å. Whereas one is accessible to the cytoplasm, the other resides in the protein core, thus implying that conformational exchange is required for periplasmic accessibility. In vivo mixed disulfide-trapping experiments validated the functional positioning of the cysteines, and in vitro accessibility results confirmed conformational exchange. Our NMR and functional data together show the existence of multiple conformational states and suggest a four-state model for relaying electrons from cytosolic to periplasmic redox substrates. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Arts I.S.,WELBIO | Arts I.S.,Catholic University of Louvain | Arts I.S.,Brussels Center for Redox Biology | Gennaris A.,WELBIO | And 5 more authors.
FEBS Letters | Year: 2015

Exposure of cells to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages DNA, membrane lipids and proteins, which can potentially lead to cell death. In proteins, the sulfur-containing residues cysteine and methionine are particularly sensitive to oxidation, forming sulfenic acids and methionine sulfoxides, respectively. The presence of protection mechanisms to scavenge ROS and repair damaged cellular components is therefore essential for cell survival. The bacterial cell envelope, which constitutes the first protection barrier from the extracellular environment, is particularly exposed to the oxidizing molecules generated by the host cells to kill invading microorganisms. Therefore, the presence of oxidative stress defense mechanisms in that compartment is crucial for cell survival. Here, we review recent findings that led to the identification of several reducing pathways protecting the cell envelope from oxidative damage. We focus in particular on the mechanisms that repair envelope proteins with oxidized cysteine and methionine residues and we discuss the major questions that remain to be solved. © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Arts I.S.,WELBIO | Arts I.S.,Catholic University of Louvain | Arts I.S.,Brussels Center for Redox Biology | Ball G.,Aix - Marseille University | And 19 more authors.
mBio | Year: 2013

Disulfide bond formation is required for the folding of many bacterial virulence factors. However, whereas the Escherichia coli disulfide bond-forming system is well characterized, not much is known on the pathways that oxidatively fold proteins in pathogenic bacteria. Here, we report the detailed unraveling of the pathway that introduces disulfide bonds in the periplasm of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The genome of P. aeruginosa uniquely encodes two DsbA proteins (P. aeruginosa DsbA1 [PaDsbA1] and PaDsbA2) and two DsbB proteins (PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2). We found that PaDsbA1, the primary donor of disulfide bonds to secreted proteins, is maintained oxidized in vivo by both PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2. In vitro reconstitution of the pathway confirms that both PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2 shuttle electrons from PaDsbA1 to membrane-bound quinones. Accordingly, deletion of both P. aeruginosa dsbB1 (PadsbB1) and PadsbB2 is required to prevent the folding of several P. aeruginosa virulence factors and to lead to a significant decrease in pathogenicity. Using a high-throughput proteomic approach, we also analyzed the impact of PadsbA1 deletion on the global periplasmic proteome of P. aeruginosa, which allowed us to identify more than 20 new potential substrates of this major oxidoreductase. Finally, we report the biochemical and structural characterization of PaDsbA2, a highly oxidizing oxidoreductase, which seems to be expressed under specific conditions. By fully dissecting the machinery that introduces disulfide bonds in P. aeruginosa, our work opens the way to the design of novel antibacterial molecules able to disarm this pathogen by preventing the proper assembly of its arsenal of virulence factors. © 2013 Arts et al. Source


Arts I.S.,WELBIO | Arts I.S.,Catholic University of Louvain | Arts I.S.,Brussels Center for Redox Biology | Vertommen D.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 8 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2016

Thioredoxin (Trx) is a ubiquitous oxidoreductase maintaining protein-bound cysteine residues in the reduced thiol state. Here, we combined a well-established method to trap Trx substrates with the power of bacterial genetics to comprehensively characterize the in vivo Trx redox interactome in the model bacterium Escherichia coli. Using strains engineered to optimize trapping, we report the identification of a total 268 Trx substrates, including 201 that had never been reported to depend on Trx for reduction. The newly identified Trx substrates are involved in a variety of cellular processes, ranging from energy metabolism to amino acid synthesis and transcription. The interaction between Trx and two of its newly identified substrates, a protein required for the import of most carbohydrates, PtsI, and the bacterial actin homolog MreB was studied in detail. We provide direct evidence that PtsI and MreB contain cysteine residues that are susceptible to oxidation and that participate in the formation of an intermolecular disulfide with Trx. By considerably expanding the number of Trx targets, our work highlights the role played by this major oxidoreductase in a variety of cellular processes. Moreover, as the dependence on Trx for reduction is often conserved across species, it also provides insightful information on the interactome of Trx in organisms other than E. coli. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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